• Gallstones and incident colorectal cancer in a large pan-European cohort study.

      Ward, Heather A; Murphy, Neil; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Leitzmann, Michael F; Aglago, Elom; Gunter, Marc J; Freisling, Heinz; Jenab, Mazda; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Severi, Gianluca; et al. (2018-12-26)
      Gallstones, a common gastrointestinal condition, can lead to several digestive complications and can result in inflammation. Risk factors for gallstones include obesity, diabetes, smoking and physical inactivity, all of which are known risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC), as is inflammation. However, it is unclear whether gallstones are a risk factor for CRC. We examined the association between history of gallstones and CRC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, a prospective cohort of over half a million participants from ten European countries. History of gallstones was assessed at baseline using a self-reported questionnaire. The analytic cohort included 334,986 participants; a history of gallstones was reported by 3,917 men and 19,836 women, and incident CRC was diagnosed among 1,832 men and 2,178 women (mean follow-up: 13.6 years). Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between gallstones and CRC were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models, stratified by sex, study centre and age at recruitment. The models were adjusted for body mass index, diabetes, alcohol intake and physical activity. A positive, marginally significant association was detected between gallstones and CRC among women in multivariable analyses (HR = 1.14, 95%CI 0.99-1.31, p = 0.077). The relationship between gallstones and CRC among men was inverse but not significant (HR = 0.81, 95%CI 0.63-1.04, p = 0.10). Additional adjustment for details of reproductive history or waist circumference yielded minimal changes to the observed associations. Further research is required to confirm the nature of the association between gallstones and CRC by sex.
    • Gap assessment in current soil monitoring networks across Europe for measuring soil functions

      van Leeuwen, J P; Saby, N P A; Jones, A; Louwagie, G; Micheli, E; Rutgers, M; Schulte, R P O; Spiegel, H; Toth, G; Creamer, R E (2017-12-01)
    • Gastro-intestinale klachten bij meningokokkeninfectie: Opkomst van serogroep W

      Wunderink, H F; Vlasveld, I N; Knol, M J; van der Ende, A; van Essen, E H R; Kuijper, E J (2017)
      Meningococcal disease usually presents as meningitis and/or septicaemia, but can also present as pneumonia or arthritis. Since 2000, a worldwide increase in meningococcal disease is reported which is caused by a new virulent clone of serogroup W (MenW:cc11). This subtype is more likely to give an atypical clinical presentation and results in high mortality rates.
    • GAVeCeLT-WoCoVA Consensus on subcutaneously anchored securement devices for the securement of venous catheters: Current evidence and recommendations for future research.

      Pinelli, Fulvio; Pittiruti, Mauro; Van Boxtel, Ton; Barone, Giovanni; Biffi, Roberto; Capozzoli, Giuseppe; Crocoli, Alessandro; Elli, Stefano; Elisei, Daniele; Fabiani, Adam; et al. (2020-07-02)
    • GC-MS analysis of e-cigarette refill solutions: A comparison of flavoring composition between flavor categories.

      Krüsemann, Erna J Z; Pennings, Jeroen L A; Cremers, Johannes W J M; Bakker, Frank; Boesveldt, Sanne; Talhout, Reinskje (2020-05-30)
    • Gedwongen opnames voor tuberculose in Nederland, 2000-2017

      de Vries, G; Bakker, M; Huisman, E; Akkerman, O (2018-09-29)
    • Geen paniek! : Zelfredzaamheid bij uitbraken van infectieziekten

      Helsloot, I (RIVM, 2006-09-01)
      The understanding of citizen response to disaster is crucial to outbreak management of infectious diseases. Large scale outbreaks cannot be mitigated without the active corporation of citizens. This article shows that citizens in general will not panic, are not helpless and will not start plundering. Inappropriate actions and communication of authorities may cause unwanted reactions of citizen which then are labelled by both authorities and media as panic or irrational behaviour.
    • Geen wetenschappelijke ondergrens voor verplicht vaccineren

      Klinkenberg, D; Veldhuijzen, I K; Ruijs, W L M; de Melker, H E; Wallinga, J; van den Hof, S; van Dissel, J T; van Vliet, J A (2020-05-07)
    • Gender and Educational Differences in the Association between Lifestyle and Cognitive Decline over 10 Years: The Doetinchem Cohort Study.

      Deckers, Kay; Nooyens, Astrid; van Boxtel, Martin; Verhey, Frans; Verschuren, Monique; Köhler, Sebastian (2018-11-28)
      Several modifiable risk factors for cognitive decline have been identified, but whether differences by gender and educational level exist is unclear. The present study aims to clarify this by prospectively investigating the relationship between health- and lifestyle factors and cognitive functioning in different subgroups defined by gender and educational level. 2,347 cognitive healthy individuals (mean age = 54.8, SD = 6.8, range: 41-71; 51.8% female; 26.2% low education) from the Doetinchem Cohort Study were examined for cognitive function at baseline, and at 5- and 10-year follow-up. Health- and lifestyle factors were captured by a poly-environmental risk score labelled 'LIfestyle for BRAin Health' (LIBRA). This score consists of 12 modifiable risk and protective factors for cognitive decline and dementia, with higher scores indicating greater risk (range: -2.7 to +12.7). Heterogeneity in associations between LIBRA and decline in verbal memory, cognitive flexibility, and mental speed between males and females and individuals with different levels of education were assessed in linear mixed models. Overall, higher LIBRA scores predicted faster decline in verbal memory, cognitive flexibility, and mental speed over 10 years. Higher LIBRA scores were further associated with increased risk for incident cognitive impairment (one-point increase in LIBRA: HR = 1.09, 1.04-1.14, p = 0.001). In general, these effects were similar across gender and educational level.
    • Gender asymmetry in concurrent partnerships and HIV prevalence.

      Leung, Ka Yin; Powers, Kimberly A; Kretzschmar, Mirjam (2017)
      The structure of the sexual network of a population plays an essential role in the transmission of HIV. Concurrent partnerships, i.e. partnerships that overlap in time, are important in determining this network structure. Men and women may differ in their concurrent behavior, e.g. in the case of polygyny where women are monogamous while men may have concurrent partnerships. Polygyny has been shown empirically to be negatively associated with HIV prevalence, but the epidemiological impacts of other forms of gender-asymmetric concurrency have not been formally explored. Here we investigate how gender asymmetry in concurrency, including polygyny, can affect the disease dynamics. We use a model for a dynamic network where individuals may have concurrent partners. The maximum possible number of simultaneous partnerships can differ for men and women, e.g. in the case of polygyny. We control for mean partnership duration, mean lifetime number of partners, mean degree, and sexually active lifespan. We assess the effects of gender asymmetry in concurrency on two epidemic phase quantities (R0 and the contribution of the acute HIV stage to R0) and on the endemic HIV prevalence. We find that gender asymmetry in concurrent partnerships is associated with lower levels of all three epidemiological quantities, especially in the polygynous case. This effect on disease transmission can be attributed to changes in network structure, where increasing asymmetry leads to decreasing network connectivity.
    • Gender- and age-dependencies of oxidative stress, as detected based on the steady state concentrations of different biomarkers in the MARK-AGE study.

      Pinchuk, Ilya; Weber, Daniela; Kochlik, Bastian; Stuetz, Wolfgang; Toussaint, Olivier; Debacq-Chainiaux, Florence; Dollé, Martijn E T; Jansen, Eugène H J M; Gonos, Efstathios S; Sikora, Ewa; et al. (2019-06-01)
    • Gene expression profiles classifying clinical stages of tuberculosis and monitoring treatment responses in Ethiopian HIV-negative and HIV-positive cohorts.

      Gebremicael, Gebremedhin; Kassa, Desta; Alemayehu, Yodit; Gebreegziaxier, Atsbeha; Kassahun, Yonas; van Baarle, Debbie; H M Ottenhoff, Tom; M Cliff, Jacqueline; C Haks, Mariëlle (2019-01-01)
    • Gene profiling-based phenotyping for identification of cellular parameters that contribute to fitness, stress-tolerance and virulence of Listeria monocytogenes variants.

      Koomen, Jeroen; den Besten, Heidy M W; Metselaar, Karin I; Tempelaars, Marcel H; Wijnands, Lucas M; Zwietering, Marcel H; Abee, Tjakko (2018-06-07)
      Microbial population heterogeneity allows for a differential microbial response to environmental stresses and can lead to the selection of stress resistant variants. In this study, we have used two different stress resistant variants of Listeria monocytogenes LO28 with mutations in the rpsU gene encoding ribosomal protein S21, to elucidate features that can contribute to fitness, stress-tolerance and host interaction using a comparative gene profiling and phenotyping approach. Transcriptome analysis showed that 116 genes were upregulated and 114 genes were downregulated in both rpsU variants. Upregulated genes included a major contribution of SigB-controlled genes such as intracellular acid resistance-associated glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) (gad3), genes involved in compatible solute uptake (opuC), glycerol metabolism (glpF, glpK, glpD), and virulence (inlA, inlB). Downregulated genes in the two variants involved mainly genes involved in flagella synthesis and motility. Phenotyping results of the two rpsU variants matched the gene profiling data including enhanced freezing resistance conceivably linked to compatible solute accumulation, higher glycerol utilisation rates, and better adhesion to Caco 2 cells presumably linked to higher expression of internalins. Also, bright field and electron microscopy analysis confirmed reduced flagellation of the variants. The activation of SigB-mediated stress defence offers an explanation for the multiple-stress resistant phenotype in rpsU variants.
    • General aspects of exposure evaluation.

      Delmaar, C; Heinemeyer, G; Jantunen, M; Schneider, K; Schumann, M (2020-06-30)
    • Generalizability of a Diabetes-Associated Country-Specific Exploratory Dietary Pattern Is Feasible Across European Populations.

      Jannasch, Franziska; Kröger, Janine; Agnoli, Claudia; Barricarte, Aurelio; Boeing, Heiner; Cayssials, Valerie; Colorado-Yohar, Sandra; Dahm, Christina C; Dow, Courtney; Fagherazzi, Guy; et al. (2019-06-01)
    • A generic PBTK model implemented in the MCRA platform: Predictive performance and uses in risk assessment of chemicals.

      Tebby, Cleo; van der Voet, Hilko; de Sousa, Georges; Rorije, Emiel; Kumar, Vikas; de Boer, Waldo; Kruisselbrink, Johannes W; Bois, Frédéric Y; Faniband, Moosa; Moretto, Angelo; et al. (2020-05-27)
    • Genes for the majority of group a streptococcal virulence factors and extracellular surface proteins do not confer an increased propensity to cause invasive disease.

      McMillan, David J; Beiko, R G; Geffers, R; Buer, Jan; Schouls, Leo M; Vlaminckx, B J M; Wannet, Wim J B; Sriprakash, K S; Chhatwal, G S (2006-10-01)
      BACKGROUND: The factors behind the reemergence of severe, invasive group A streptococcal (GAS) diseases are unclear, but it could be caused by altered genetic endowment in these organisms. However, data from previous studies assessing the association between single genetic factors and invasive disease are often conflicting, suggesting that other, as-yet unidentified factors are necessary for the development of this class of disease. METHODS: In this study, we used a targeted GAS virulence microarray containing 226 GAS genes to determine the virulence gene repertoires of 68 GAS isolates (42 associated with invasive disease and 28 associated with noninvasive disease) collected in a defined geographic location during a contiguous time period. We then employed 3 advanced machine learning methods (genetic algorithm neural network, support vector machines, and classification trees) to identify genes with an increased association with invasive disease. RESULTS: Virulence gene profiles of individual GAS isolates varied extensively among these geographically and temporally related strains. Using genetic algorithm neural network analysis, we identified 3 genes with a marginal overrepresentation in invasive disease isolates. Significantly, 2 of these genes, ssa and mf4, encoded superantigens but were only present in a restricted set of GAS M-types. The third gene, spa, was found in variable distributions in all M-types in the study. CONCLUSIONS: Our comprehensive analysis of GAS virulence profiles provides strong evidence for the incongruent relationships among any of the 226 genes represented on the array and the overall propensity of GAS to cause invasive disease, underscoring the pathogenic complexity of these diseases, as well as the importance of multiple bacteria and/or host factors.