• Pain over the adult life course: 15-year pain trajectories-The Doetinchem Cohort Study.

      Picavet, H Susan J; Monique Verschuren, W M; Groot, Lichelle; Schaap, Laura; van Oostrom, Sandra H (2019-10-01)
    • Pair formation models for sexually transmitted infections: A primer.

      Kretzschmar, Mirjam; Heijne, Janneke C M (2017-08)
      For modelling sexually transmitted infections, duration of partnerships can strongly influence the transmission dynamics of the infection. If partnerships are monogamous, pairs of susceptible individuals are protected from becoming infected, while pairs of infected individuals delay onward transmission of the infection as long as they persist. In addition, for curable infections re-infection from an infected partner may occur. Furthermore, interventions based on contact tracing rely on the possibility of identifying and treating partners of infected individuals. To reflect these features in a mathematical model, pair formation models were introduced to mathematical epidemiology in the 1980's. They have since been developed into a widely used tool in modelling sexually transmitted infections and the impact of interventions. Here we give a basic introduction to the concepts of pair formation models for a susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) epidemic. We review some results and applications of pair formation models mainly in the context of chlamydia infection.
    • A pan-European ring trial to validate an International Standard for detection of Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in seafoods.

      Hartnell, R E; Stockley, L; Keay, W; Rosec, J-P; Hervio-Heath, D; Van den Berg, H; Leoni, F; Ottaviani, D; Henigman, U; Denayer, S; et al. (2018-02-10)
      Globally, vibrios represent an important and well-established group of bacterial foodborne pathogens. The European Commission (EC) mandated the Comite de European Normalisation (CEN) to undertake work to provide validation data for 15 methods in microbiology to support EC legislation. As part of this mandated work programme, merging of ISO/TS 21872-1:2007, which specifies a horizontal method for the detection of V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae, and ISO/TS 21872-2:2007, a similar horizontal method for the detection of potentially pathogenic vibrios other than V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus was proposed. Both parts of ISO/TS 21872 utilized classical culture-based isolation techniques coupled with biochemical confirmation steps. The work also considered simplification of the biochemical confirmation steps. In addition, because of advances in molecular based methods for identification of human pathogenic Vibrio spp. classical and real-time PCR options were also included within the scope of the validation. These considerations formed the basis of a multi-laboratory validation study with the aim of improving the precision of this ISO technical specification and providing a single ISO standard method to enable detection of these important foodborne Vibrio spp.. To achieve this aim, an international validation study involving 13 laboratories from 9 countries in Europe was conducted in 2013. The results of this validation have enabled integration of the two existing technical specifications targeting the detection of the major foodborne Vibrio spp., simplification of the suite of recommended biochemical identification tests and the introduction of molecular procedures that provide both species level identification and discrimination of putatively pathogenic strains of V. parahaemolyticus by the determination of the presence of theromostable direct and direct related haemolysins. The method performance characteristics generated in this have been included in revised international standard, ISO 21872:2017, published in July 2017.
    • Parasite Load and Site-Specific Parasite Pressure as Determinants of Immune Indices in Two Sympatric Rodent Species.

      Hofmeester, Tim R; Bügel, Esther J; Hendrikx, Bob; Maas, Miriam; Franssen, Frits F J; Sprong, Hein; Matson, Kevin D (2019-11-22)
      Wildlife is exposed to parasites from the environment. This parasite pressure, which differs among areas, likely shapes the immunological strategies of animals. Individuals differ in the number of parasites they encounter and host, and this parasite load also influences the immune system. The relative impact of parasite pressure vs. parasite load on different host species, particularly those implicated as important reservoirs of zoonotic pathogens, is poorly understood. We captured bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) at four sites in the Netherlands. We sampled sub-adult males to quantify their immune function, infestation load for ecto- and gastrointestinal parasites, and infection status for vector-borne microparasites. We then used regression trees to test if variation in immune indices could be explained by among-site differences (parasite pressure), among-individual differences in infestation intensity and infection status (parasite load), or other intrinsic factors. Regression trees revealed splits among sites for haptoglobin, hemagglutination, and body-mass corrected spleen size. We also found splits based on infection/infestation for haptoglobin, hemolysis, and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio. Furthermore, we found a split between species for hemolysis and splits based on body mass for haptoglobin, hemagglutination, hematocrit, and body-mass corrected spleen size. Our results suggest that both parasite pressure and parasite load influence the immune system of wild rodents. Additional studies linking disease ecology and ecological immunology are needed to understand better the complexities of host-parasite interactions and how these interactions shape zoonotic disease risk.
    • Parasitic nematodes of the genus Syphacia Seurat, 1916 infecting Muridae in the British Isles, and the peculiar case of Syphacia frederici.

      Stewart, Alex; Lowe, Ann; Smales, Lesley; Bajer, Anna; Bradley, Jan; Dwużnik, Dorota; Franssen, Frits; Griffith, Jack; Stuart, Peter; Turner, Cyan; et al. (2017-08-23)
      Syphacia stroma (von Linstow, 1884) Morgan, 1932 and Syphacia frederici Roman, 1945 are oxyurid nematodes that parasitize two murid rodents, Apodemus sylvaticus and Apodemus flavicollis, on the European mainland. Only S. stroma has been recorded previously in Apodemus spp. from the British Isles. Despite the paucity of earlier reports, we identified S. frederici in four disparate British sites, two in Nottinghamshire, one each in Berkshire and Anglesey, Wales. Identification was based on their site in the host (caecum and not small intestine), on key morphological criteria that differentiate this species from S. stroma (in particular the tail of female worms) and by sequencing two genetic loci (cytochrome C oxidase 1 gene and a section of ribosomal DNA). Sequences derived from both genetic loci of putative British S. frederici isolates formed a tight clade with sequences from continental worms known to be S. frederici, clearly distinguishing these isolates from S. stroma which formed a tight clade of its own, distinct from clades representative of Syphacia obvelata from Mus and S. muris from Rattus. The data in this paper therefore constitute the first record of S. frederici from British wood mice, and confirm the status of this species as distinct from both S. obvelata and S. stroma.
    • Partial protective effect of bivalent HPV16/18 vaccination against anogenital warts in a large cohort of Dutch primary care patients.

      Woestenberg, Petra J; Guevara Morel, Alejandra E; Bogaards, Johannes A; Hooiveld, Mariëtte; van 't Klooster, Tessa M Schurink; Hoebe, Christian J P A; van der Sande, Marianne A B; van Benthem, Birgit H B (2020-05-17)
    • Participation, retention, and associated factors of women in a prospective multicenter study on Chlamydia trachomatis infections (FemCure).

      Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H T M; Heijman, Titia; Götz, Hannelore M; Zaandam, Patricia; Wijers, Juliën; Leenen, Jeanine; van Liere, Geneviève; Heil, Jeanne; Brinkhues, Stephanie; Wielemaker, Astrid; et al. (2020-01-01)
    • Particle toxicology and health - where are we?

      Riediker, Michael; Zink, Daniele; Kreyling, Wolfgang; Oberdörster, Günter; Elder, Alison; Graham, Uschi; Lynch, Iseult; Duschl, Albert; Ichihara, Gaku; Ichihara, Sahoko; et al. (2019-04-23)
    • Particulate air pollution from different sources and mortality in 7.5 million adults - The Dutch Environmental Longitudinal Study (DUELS).

      Fischer, Paul H; Marra, Marten; Ameling, Caroline B; Velders, Guus J M; Hoogerbrugge, Ronald; de Vries, Wilco; Wesseling, Joost; Janssen, Nicole A H; Houthuijs, Danny (2020-02-25)
      We used existing Dutch national databases on mortality, individual characteristics, residence history, neighbourhood characteristics and modelled air pollution concentrations from different sources and air pollution components: particulate matter PM10, primary particulate matter PM10 (PPM10), particulate matter PM2.5, primary particulate matter PM2.5 (PPM2.5), elemental carbon (EC), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) in PM10 (SIA10) or in PM2.5 (SIA2.5). We established a cohort of 7.5 million individuals 30 years or older. We followed the cohort for eight years (2008-2015). We applied Cox proportional hazard regression models adjusting for potential individual and area-specific confounders.
    • Particulate matter air pollution components and incidence of cancers of the stomach and the upper aerodigestive tract in the European Study of Cohorts of Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE).

      Weinmayr, Gudrun; Pedersen, Marie; Stafoggia, Massimo; Andersen, Zorana J; Galassi, Claudia; Munkenast, Jule; Jaensch, Andrea; Oftedal, Bente; Krog, Norun H; Aamodt, Geir; et al. (2018-08-07)
      Previous analysis from the large European multicentre ESCAPE study showed an association of ambient particulate matter <2.5 μm (PM2.5) air pollution exposure at residence with the incidence of gastric cancer. It is unclear which components of PM are most relevant for gastric and also upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer and some of them may not be strongly correlated with PM mass. We evaluated the association between long-term exposure to elemental components of PM2.5 and PM10 and gastric and UADT cancer incidence in European adults.
    • Particulate matter exposure in roadwork companies: A mental models study on work safety.

      Stege, TAM; Bolte, JFB; Claassen, L; Timmermans, DRM (2019-07-15)
    • Partner notification and partner treatment for chlamydia: attitude and practice of general practitioners in the Netherlands; a landscape analysis.

      van den Broek, Ingrid V F; Donker, Gé A; Hek, Karin; van Bergen, Jan E A M; van Benthem, Birgit H B; Götz, Hannelore M (2017-12-20)
      Chlamydia prevalence remains high despite scaling-up control efforts. Transmission is not effectively interrupted without partner notification (PN) and (timely) partner treatment (PT). In the Netherlands, the follow-up of partners is not standardized and may depend on GPs' time and priorities. We investigated current practice and attitude of GPs towards PN and PT to determine the potential for Patient-Initiated Partner Treatment, which is legally not supported yet.
    • Paternal cholestasis exacerbates obesity-associated hypertension in male offspring but is prevented by paternal ursodeoxycholic acid treatment.

      Pataia, Vanessa; Papacleovoulou, Georgia; Nikolova, Vanya; Samuelsson, Anne-Maj; Chambers, Stephanie; Jansen, Eugene; Taylor, Paul D; Poston, Lucilla; Williamson, Catherine (2018-05-24)
      Obesity is a heterogeneous phenotype and risk associations to non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes are influenced by several factors. The paternal metabolic status at the time of conception influences offspring susceptibility to developing obesity and adiposity-associated cardiometabolic disease. Cholestatic liver diseases are characterized by raised circulating serum bile acid levels and dyslipidemia, and are commonly treated with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). We hypothesized that paternal cholestasis alters offspring susceptibility to developing obesity and adiposity-associated cardiometabolic disease and that this may be modified by paternal UDCA treatment.
    • Paternal Exposure to Environmental Chemical Stress Affects Male Offspring's Hepatic Mitochondria.

      Godschalk, Roger; Remels, Alex; Hoogendoorn, Camiel; van Benthem, Jan; Luijten, Mirjam; Duale, Nur; Brunborg, Gunnar; Olsen, Ann-Karin; Bouwman, Freek G; Munnia, Armelle; et al. (2018-03-01)
      Preconceptional paternal exposures may affect offspring's health, which cannot be explained by mutations in germ cells, but by persistent changes in the regulation of gene expression. Therefore, we investigated whether pre-conceptional paternal exposure to benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) could alter the offspring's phenotype. Male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to B[a]P by gavage for 6 weeks, 3× per week, and were crossed with unexposed BALB-c females 6 weeks after the final exposure. The offspring was kept under normal feeding conditions and was sacrificed at 3 weeks of age. Analysis of the liver proteome by 2D-gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry indicated that proteins involved in mitochondrial function were significantly downregulated in the offspring of exposed fathers. This down-regulation of mitochondrial proteins was paralleled by a reduction in mitochondrial DNA copy number and reduced activity of citrate synthase and β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, but in male offspring only. Surprisingly, analysis of hepatic mRNA expression revealed a male-specific up-regulation of the genes, whose proteins were downregulated, including Aldh2 and Ogg1. This discrepancy could be related to several selected microRNA (miRNA)'s that regulate the translation of these proteins; miRNA-122, miRNA-129-2-5p, and miRNA-1941 were upregulated in a gender-specific manner. Since mitochondria are thought to be a source of intracellular reactive oxygen species, we additionally assessed oxidatively-induced DNA damage. Both 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine and malondialdehyde-dG adduct levels were significantly reduced in male offspring of exposed fathers. In conclusion, we show that paternal exposure to B[a]P can regulate mitochondrial metabolism in offspring, which may have profound implications for our understanding of health and disease risk inherited from fathers.
    • Pathogen communities of songbird-derived ticks in Europe's low countries.

      Heylen, Dieter; Fonville, Manoj; Docters van Leeuwen, Arieke; Stroo, Arjan; Duisterwinkel, Martin; van Wieren, Sip; Diuk-Wasser, Maria; de Bruin, Arnout; Sprong, Hein (2017-10-18)
      Birds play a major role in the maintenance of enzootic cycles of pathogens transmitted by ticks. Due to their mobility, they affect the spatial distribution and abundance of both ticks and pathogens. In the present study, we aim to identify members of a pathogen community [Borrelia burgdorferi (s.l.), B. miyamotoi, 'Ca. Neoehrlichia mikurensis', Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Rickettsia helvetica] in songbird-derived ticks from 11 locations in the Netherlands and Belgium (2012-2014).
    • Pathogenesis of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in BALB/c Mice Differs Between Intratracheal and Intranasal Inoculation.

      van Erp, Elisabeth A; Lakerveld, Anke J; Mulder, H Lie; Luytjes, Willem; Ferwerda, Gerben; van Kasteren, Puck B (2019-06-03)
    • Pathogenic helminths in the past: Much ado about nothing.

      Mulder, Christian (2017)
      Despite a long tradition on the extent to which Romanisation has improved human health, some recent studies suggest that Romanisation in general, and Roman sanitation in particular, may not have made people any healthier, given that in Roman times gastrointestinal parasites were apparently widespread, whilst in the present day such parasites rarely cause diseases. Unfortunately, this novel claim neglects the empirical evidence that worldwide infections in over 1.5 billion people are caused by ubiquitous foodborne nematodes. Therefore, many may wonder if fossil remains of soil-transmitted helminths have been reported in ancient sanitation infrastructures. Beneficial access to improved sanitation should always be prioritized, hence how can historical sanitation efforts have ever been harmful? In this short article, a strong plea for caution is given, asking for an augmented nematological record and showing that there is not any evidence against Roman sanitation, neither in the past nor in the present.
    • Patient support for tuberculosis patients in low-incidence countries: A systematic review.

      van de Berg, Sarah; Jansen-Aaldring, Niesje; de Vries, Gerard; van den Hof, Susan (2018)
      Patient support during tuberculosis treatment is expected to be more often available and more customized in low tuberculosis incidence, high-resource settings than in lower-resource settings. The aim of this systematic review is to provide an overview of tuberculosis patient support interventions implemented in low-incidence countries and an evaluation of their effects on treatment-related outcomes as well as their acceptability by patients and providers.