• Tall height and obesity are associated with an increased risk of aggressive prostate cancer: results from the EPIC cohort study.

      Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Appleby, Paul N; Pischon, Tobias; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Steffen, Annika; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Kritikou, Maria; Krogh, Vittorio; Palli, Domenico; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Tumino, Rosario; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Agudo, Antonio; Larrañaga, Nerea; Molina-Portillo, Elena; Barricarte, Aurelio; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Quirós, J Ramón; Stattin, Pär; Häggström, Christel; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Schmidt, Julie A; Gunter, Marc; Freisling, Heinz; Aune, Dagfinn; Ward, Heather; Riboli, Elio; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C (2017-07-13)
      The relationship between body size and prostate cancer risk, and in particular risk by tumour characteristics, is not clear because most studies have not differentiated between high-grade or advanced stage tumours, but rather have assessed risk with a combined category of aggressive disease. We investigated the association of height and adiposity with incidence of and death from prostate cancer in 141,896 men in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.
    • Tannic acid promotes ion release of copper oxide nanoparticles: Impacts from solution pH change and complexation reactions.

      Zhao, Jing; Liu, Yang; Pan, Bo; Gao, Guoqian; Liu, Ying; Liu, Siqian; Liang, Ni; Zhou, Dandan; Vijver, Martina G; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M (2017-12-15)
      The increasing number of applications in which copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are used, may lead to potential release of CuO NPs into the environment. However, the impact of natural organic matters on the behavior and fate of CuO NPs in aquatic media is still largely unknown. In this study, the dissolution and aggregation of CuO NPs under the exposure of tannic acid (TA) were monitored over a period of 72 h, with a focus on assessing the contributions of solution pH changes and complexation reactions. Results showed that the total amount of Cu2+released from CuO NPs increased in the presence of TA especially at the highest TA concentration of 73.5 μmol/L. Although TA was observed to wrap around the CuO NPs, the aggregation of CuO NPs was not strongly influenced by TA and by the solution pH as investigated in this study. The kinetics of Cu2+release were fitted using the modified pseudo second-order model and the rate of dissolution was assessed to be highest at TA = 14.7 μmol/L. At pH = 4, the increased H+concentration was responsible for increased Cu2+release, whereas the complexation reaction between Cu2+and TA dominated at pH = 7. These findings suggested that the effects of TA on the dissolution of CuO NPs were a combination of solution pH change and complexation reaction, the relative fractions of which also depended on the solution pH. Additionally, the percentage of Cu2+released from the CuO NPs was found to increase upon decreasing concentrations of CuO NPs. Our work helps to further understand how and to which extent natural organic matters affect the behavior and fate of CuO NPs.
    • Tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide yield of UK cigarettes and the risk of non-muscle-invasive and muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

      van Osch, Frits H M; Pauwels, Charlotte G G M; Jochems, Sylvia H J; Fayokun, Ranti; James, Nicholas D; Wallace, D Michael A; Cheng, Kar-Keung; Bryan, Richard T; van Schooten, Frederik J; Zeegers, Maurice P (2017-07-04)
      Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for bladder cancer (BC); however, the impact of cigarette content remains unclear. This study aims to investigate tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide (TNCO) yields of different filtered cigarettes in relation to BC risk. From the Bladder Cancer Prognosis Programme 575 non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) cases, 139 muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) cases and 130 BC-free controls with retrospective data on smoking behaviour and cigarette brand were identified. Independently measured TNCO yields of cigarettes sold in the UK were obtained through the UK Department of Health and merged with the Bladder Cancer Prognosis Programme dataset to estimate the daily intake of TNCO. BC risk increased by TNCO intake category for NMIBC cases (P <0.050 in all multivariate models), but only for the daily intake of tar for MIBC cases (P=0.046) in multivariate models. No difference in risk was observed between smokers of low-tar/low-nicotine and high-tar/high-nicotine cigarettes compared with never smokers, either for NMIBC (P=0.544) or MIBC (P=0.449). High daily intake of TNCO additionally increases the risk of both NMIBC and MIBC compared with low daily intake. However, as there is no difference in BC risk between low-tar/low-nicotine and high-tar/high-nicotine cigarette smokers, it remains unclear whether smoking behaviour or TNCO yield of cigarettes explains this association.
    • Targeted outreach hepatitis B vaccination program in high-risk adults: The fundamental challenge of the last mile.

      Mangen, M-J J; Stibbe, H; Urbanus, A; Siedenburg, E C; Waldhober, Q; de Wit, G A; van Steenbergen, J E (2017-05-31)
      The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the on-going decentralised targeted hepatitis B vaccination program for behavioural high-risk groups operated by regional public health services in the Netherlands since 1-November-2002. Target groups for free vaccination are men having sex with men (MSM), commercial sex workers (CSW) and hard drug users (HDU). Heterosexuals with a high partner change rate (HRP) were included until 1-November-2007.
    • Tekenencefalitis, een nieuwe ziekte in Nederland?

      Brandwagt D; Spit S; Sprong H; Hofhuis A; Stroo CJ; Gassner F; Fanoy E (2017-04-24)
    • Tekenencefalitis: een lastige diagnose

      Hira V; Reimerink JHJ (2017-07)
    • Temporal and spatial analysis of psittacosis in association with poultry farming in the Netherlands, 2000-2015.

      Hogerwerf, Lenny; Holstege, Manon M C; Benincà, Elisa; Dijkstra, Frederika; van der Hoek, Wim (2017-07-26)
      Human psittacosis is a highly under diagnosed zoonotic disease, commonly linked to psittacine birds. Psittacosis in birds, also known as avian chlamydiosis, is endemic in poultry, but the risk for people living close to poultry farms is unknown. Therefore, our study aimed to explore the temporal and spatial patterns of human psittacosis infections and identify possible associations with poultry farming in the Netherlands.
    • Temporal associations between national outbreaks of meningococcal serogroup W and C disease in the Netherlands and England: an observational cohort study.

      Knol, Mirjam J; Hahné, Susan J M; Lucidarme, Jay; Campbell, Helen; de Melker, Hester E; Gray, Stephen J; Borrow, Ray; Ladhani, Shamez N; Ramsay, Mary E; van der Ende, Arie (2017-10)
      Since 2009, the incidence of meningococcal serogroup W disease has increased rapidly in the UK because of a single strain (the so-called original UK strain) belonging to the hypervirulent sequence type-11 clonal complex (cc11), with a variant outbreak strain (the so-called 2013 strain) emerging in 2013. Subsequently, the Netherlands has had an increase in the incidence of meningococcal serogroup W disease. We assessed the temporal and phylogenetic associations between the serogroup W outbreaks in the Netherlands and England, and the historical serogroup C outbreaks in both countries.
    • Ten years of HPV vaccination in the Netherlands: current evidence and future challenges in HPV-related disease prevention.

      Qendri, V; Schurink-Van 't Klooster, T M; Bogaards, J A; Berkhof, J (2018-12-01)
      Girls-only vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 and 18 was implemented in the Netherlands in 2009. Despite the evidence of the efficacy against precancerous lesions, cross-protection induced by the vaccine and a greater potential for cancer prevention than cervical cancer only, vaccine coverage in the girls-only program has remained below target levels. Areas covered: In this paper, we review the literature from the Netherlands on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination since vaccine introduction, give an account of the coverage, safety and effectiveness of HPV vaccination as has been reported in the Dutch surveillance program and discuss challenges of the current HPV vaccination program. Expert commentary: Girls-only HPV vaccination may confer a substantial health gain in HPV-related disease prevention. However, vaccine coverage declined remarkably recently possibly related to safety concerns, limiting the benefits from girls' vaccination and increasing the potential additional benefit of sex-neutral HPV vaccination. Considering the emergence of novel vaccination and screening options and the change from cytology- to HPV-based screening in 2017, further research is required to inform decisions on the optimization of an integrated vaccination and screening program.
    • Test sensitivity of a commercial serine protease digestion kit for the detection of Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella pseudospiralis larvae in pig muscle.

      Franssen, F; Johne, A; van der Giessen, J; Nöckler, K; Mayer-Scholl, A (2019-04-01)
      The reference method for Trichinella detection at meat inspection is the magnetic stirrer method (MSM) utilising HCl-pepsin for pooled sample digestion. Due to availability and quality issues with pepsin, alternative digestion methods are being offered, such as the Priocheck Trichinella AAD kit (T-AAD), based on serine endopeptidase digestion. In this study the T-AAD kit was compared to the reference method. Minced pork samples were spiked with T. spiralis muscle larvae (ML) with- and without capsule or T. pseudospiralis ML, and analysed with both tests. Test results of individually spiked test samples were analysed by generalised linear modelling. The T-AAD test kit was comparable to the reference method for the qualitative detection of T. spiralis in pigs, but not quantitatively. Overall, 94% of spiked T. spiralis were recovered using MSM against 75.2% when using T-AAD (p < 0.0001). Using the MSM 80.0% of spiked T. pseudospiralis were recovered against 20% with the T-AAD (p < 0.0001). Based on our experience with the T-AAD kit, we strongly recommend validating the method on site prior to introduction into routine diagnostic laboratories, but this will not alleviate the poor test sensitivity of the T-AAD for the detection of T. pseudospiralis.
    • Tetanus Toxoid carrier protein induced T-helper cell responses upon vaccination of middle-aged adults.

      van der Heiden, Marieke; Duizendstra, Aafke; Berbers, Guy A M; Boots, Annemieke M H; Buisman, Anne-Marie (2017-10-09)
      Vaccines frequently induce suboptimal immune responses in the elderly, due to immunological ageing. Timely vaccination may be a strategy to overcome this problem, which classifies middle-aged adults asan interesting target group for future vaccine interventions. However, the immunological fitness of the middle-aged population is ill-defined. It is currently unknown whether effective T-cell help towards B-cells is initiated by conjugate-carrier vaccines at middle-age.
    • Tetracyclines and tetracycline resistance in agricultural soils: microcosm and field studies.

      Schmitt, Heike; Stoob, Krispin; Hamscher, Gerd; Smit, Eric; Seinen, Willem (2006-04-01)
      The influence of the use of antibiotics on the prevalence of resistance genes in the environment is still poorly understood. We studied the diversity of tetracycline and sulfonamide resistance genes as influenced by fertilization with pig manure in soil microcosms and at two field locations. Manure contained a high diversity of resistance genes, regardless of whether it stemmed from a farm operation with low or regular use of antibiotics. In the microcosm soils, the influence of fertilization with manure was clearly shown by an increase in the number of resistance genes in the soil after manuring. Spiking of the tetracycline compounds to the microcosms had only little additional impact on the diversity of resistance genes. Overall, the tetracycline resistance genes tet(T), tet(W), and tet(Z) were ubiquitous in soil and pig slurries, whereas tet(Y), tet(S), tet(C), tet(Q), and tet(H) were introduced to the microcosm soil by manuring. The diversity of tetracycline and sulfonamide [sul(1), sul(2), and sul(3)] resistance genes on a Swiss pasture was very high even before slurry amendment, although manure from intensive farming had not been applied in the previous years. The additional effect of manuring was small, with the tetracycline and sulfonamide resistance diversity staying at high levels for the complete growth season. At an agricultural field site in Germany, the diversity of tetracycline and sulfonamide resistance genes was considerably lower, possibly reflecting regional differences in gene diversity. This study shows that there is a considerable pool of resistance genes in soils. Although it is not possible to conclude whether this diversity is caused by the global spread of resistance genes after 50 years of tetracycline use or is due to the natural background in soil resistance genes, it highlights a role that environmental reservoirs might play in resistance gene capture.
    • The association between the NAT2 genetic polymorphisms and risk of DILI during anti-TB treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis

      Zhang, Min; Wang, Shuqiang; Wilffert, Bob; Tong, Rongsheng; van Soolingen, Dick; van den Hof, Susan; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem; Department of Pharmacy; Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences & Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital; Chengdu China; University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology; Groningen The Netherlands; University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology; Groningen The Netherlands; Department of Pharmacy; Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences & Sichuan Provincial People's Hospital; Chengdu China; Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands; Department of Medical Microbiology; Radboud University Medical Centre; Nijmegen The Netherlands; KNCV Tuberculosis Foundation; The Hague The Netherlands; University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology; Groningen The Netherlands (2018-07-26)
    • The crystal structure of titanium dioxide nanoparticles influences immune activity in vitro and in vivo

      Vandebriel, Rob J.; Vermeulen, Jolanda P.; van Engelen, Laurens B.; de Jong, Britt; Verhagen, Lisa M.; de la Fonteyne-Blankestijn, Liset J.; Hoonakker, Marieke E.; de Jong, Wim H. (2018-01-30)
    • The Human Immunodeficiency Virus Continuum of Care in European Union Countries in 2013: Data and Challenges

      Gourlay, Annabelle; Noori, Teymur; Pharris, Anastasia; Axelsson, Maria; Costagliola, Dominique; Cowan, Susan; Croxford, Sara; d’Arminio Monforte, Antonella; del Amo, Julia; Delpech, Valerie; Díaz, Asunción; Girardi, Enrico; Gunsenheimer-Bartmeyer, Barbara; Hernando, Victoria; Jose, Sophie; Leierer, Gisela; Nikolopoulos, Georgios; Obel, Niels; Op de Coul, Eline; Paraskeva, Dimitra; Reiss, Peter; Sabin, Caroline; Sasse, André; Schmid, Daniela; Sonnerborg, Anders; Spina, Alexander; Suligoi, Barbara; Supervie, Virginie; Touloumi, Giota; Van Beckhoven, Dominique; van Sighem, Ard; Vourli, Georgia; Zangerle, Robert; Porter, Kholoud (2017-06-15)
    • Therapie van parasitaire infecties in Nederland.

      Stelma F; Hellemond J van; Genderen P van; Gool T van; Hekker T; Kortbeek T; Mank T; Mulder B; Visser L; Sauerwein R (2017-03)
    • Thoron exposure in Dutch dwellings - An overview.

      de With, G; Smetsers, R C G M; Slaper, H; de Jong, P (2018-01-04)
      In the Netherlands considerable attention has been given to the exposure from thoron progeny in dwellings. For this purpose a nationwide survey on the thoron exhalation and thoron progeny concentration has been completed in 2015. Furthermore, extensive laboratory studies have been performed to measure activity concentrations and thoron exhalation rates from regular Dutch building materials. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate if the findings from both field experiments and laboratory results are consistent. For this reason measured properties of building materials and surface barriers, in-situ measurements on air ventilation and thoron(progeny) in dwellings as well as advanced computational modelling on indoor air and aerosol behaviour have been used. The results demonstrate that median and mean thoron progeny concentrations of 0.53 and 0.64 Bq·m-3 found in the survey are comparable with the mean concentration of 0.57 Bq·m-3 obtained from laboratory testing and calculation. Furthermore, upper thoron progeny concentrations from the survey and the calculations are with respectively 13 and 14 Bq·m-3 also in good agreement. Such elevated concentrations lead to an effective doses of around 4 mSv per year. The study also includes worst-case scenarios on the application of surface materials high on 232Th, and the expected reduction in thoron progeny when using mainstream mitigation measures.