• V-MRSA-dragerschap en het dagelijks leven van veehouders

      Domsdorf TAPB; Haverkate MR; Eilers R; Timen A (2017-09)
    • Vaccinatie tegen meningokokkenziekte.

      Knol, M; Freudenburg, W; Berbers, G; Ruijs, H; de Melker, H; van der Ende, A (2020-02-17)
    • [Vaccinatie van immuungecompromitteerde patiënten. Wanneer wel, wanneer niet?

      Goorhuis, Abraham; Garcia-Garrido, Hannah M; Vollaard, Albert M (2020-09-03)
    • Vaccinatieprogramma's in Nederland ; Impact op het aantal ziektegevallen.

      Tulen, Anna D; van Wijhe, Maarten; Korthals Altes, Hester; McDonald, Scott A; de Melker, Hester E; Postma, Maarten J; Wallinga, Jacco (2018-09-20)
      To quantify the impact of long-standing vaccination programmes on notified cases in the Netherlands. Estimates based on model projections of historical morbidity data. We collected and digitised previously unavailable monthly case notifications of diphtheria, poliomyelitis, mumps and rubella in the Netherlands over the period 1919-2015. Poisson regression models accounting for seasonality, multi-year cycles, secular trends and auto-correlation were fit to pre-vaccination periods. Cases averted were calculated as the difference between observed and expected cases based on model projections. In the first 13 years of mass vaccinations, case notifications declined rapidly with 18,900 (95%-CI: 12,000-28,600) notified cases of diphtheria averted, 5100 (95%-CI: 2200-13,500) cases of poliomyelitis, and 1800 (95%-CI: 1000-3200) cases of mumps. Vaccination of 11-year-old girls against rubella averted 13700 (95%-CI: 1400-38,300) cases, while universal rubella vaccination averted 700 (95%-CI: 80-2300) cases.
    • Vaccinaties in het eerste levensjaar en gerapporteerde allergische aandoeningen bij kinderen van 8-12 jaar

      Bernsen, R M D; Jongste, Johan C de; Koes, B W; Aardoom, H A; Wouden, J C van der (RIVM, 2006-06-01)
      Evidence for the relationship between the diphtheria tetanus pertussis (DTP) vaccination and allergic disorders is inconclusive, because the available studies that constitute the evidence are liable to confounding by indication. Further the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccination was added recently to most existing vaccination programmes and therefore no conclusive data on the relationship with allergic disorders are yet available. Objective of the study was to assess the relationship between vaccinations in the first year of life and reported allergic disorders at primary school age. We conducted a cross sectional study in 1875 children attending Orthodox Reformed (Protestant) primary schools in the Netherlands. The parents returned questionnaires with data on vaccination status, allergic symptoms and lifetime allergic disorders (asthma, hay fever, eczema and food allergy), and possible confounders. In the diphtheria tetanus pertussis (inactivated) poliomyelitis (DTP-IPV) vaccinated group Hib vaccinated and Hib unvaccinated children were compared as to allergic disorders. No clinically or statistically significant differences in the prevalence of asthma, hay fever, eczema and food allergy appeared between vaccinated and unvaccinated groups. The DTP-IPV vaccination and the Hib-vaccination, administered in the first year of life, do not increase the risk of allergic disorders in 8-12 years-old, Dutch children.
    • Vaccinating children against influenza increases variability in epidemic size.

      Backer, J A; van Boven, M; VAN DER Hoek, W; Wallinga, J (2018-10-10)
      Seasonal influenza causes a high disease burden. Many influenza vaccination programmes target the elderly and persons at high risk of complications. Some countries have recommended or even implemented a paediatric vaccination programme. Such a programme is expected to reduce influenza transmission in the population, offering direct protection to the vaccinated children and indirect protection to the elderly. We study the impact of a child vaccination programme with an age- and risk-structured transmission model, calibrated to data of 11 influenza seasons in the Netherlands. The model tracks the build-up of immunes and susceptibles in each age cohort over time, and it allows for seasonal variation in vaccine match and antigenic drift. Different vaccination strategies are evaluated for three target age groups (2-3, 2-12 and 2-16 year olds) over the full range of vaccination coverages (0-100%). The results show that the paediatric vaccination programme has only a limited impact on the elderly age groups, which account for most influenza morbidity and mortality. This is due to two notable changes in infection dynamics. First, an age shift is observed: influenza infections are reduced in vaccinated children, but are increased in young adults with limited natural immunity after years of vaccination. These young adults assume the role of driving the epidemic. Second, a year with low influenza activity can be followed by a large epidemic due to build-up of susceptibles. This variation of the infection attack rate increases with increasing vaccination coverage. The increased variability in the infection attack rate implies that health care facilities should be prepared for rare but larger peaks in influenza patients. Moreover, vaccinating the group with the highest transmission potential, results in a larger dependency on a secure vaccine supply. These arguments should be taken into account in the decision to introduce mass vaccination of school-aged children against influenza.
    • Vaccinating children against influenza: overall cost-effective with potential for undesirable outcomes.

      de Boer, Pieter T; Backer, Jantien A; van Hoek, Albert Jan; Wallinga, Jacco (2020-01-14)
    • Vaccine antigens modulate the innate response of monocytes to Al(OH)3.

      Kooijman, Sietske; Brummelman, Jolanda; van Els, Cécile A C M; Marino, Fabio; Heck, Albert J R; van Riet, Elly; Metz, Bernard; Kersten, Gideon F A; Pennings, Jeroen L A; Meiring, Hugo D (2018)
      Aluminum-based adjuvants have widely been used in human vaccines since 1926. In the absence of antigens, aluminum-based adjuvants can initiate the inflammatory preparedness of innate cells, yet the impact of antigens on this response has not been investigated so far. In this study, we address the modulating effect of vaccine antigens on the monocyte-derived innate response by comparing processes initiated by Al(OH)3 and by Infanrix, an Al(OH)3-adjuvanted trivalent combination vaccine (DTaP), containing diphtheria toxoid (D), tetanus toxoid (T) and acellular pertussis (aP) vaccine antigens. A systems-wide analysis of stimulated monocytes was performed in which full proteome analysis was combined with targeted transcriptome analysis and cytokine analysis. This comprehensive study revealed four major differences in the monocyte response, between plain Al(OH)3 and DTaP stimulation conditions: (I) DTaP increased the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, whereas Al(OH)3 did not; (II) Al(OH)3 increased the gene expression of IFNγ, IL-2 and IL-17a in contrast to the limited induction or even downregulation by DTaP; (III) increased expression of type I interferons-induced proteins was not observed upon DTaP stimulation, but was observed upon Al(OH)3 stimulation; (IV) opposing regulation of protein localization pathways was observed for Al(OH)3 and DTaP stimulation, related to the induction of exocytosis by Al(OH)3 alone. This study highlights that vaccine antigens can antagonize Al(OH)3-induced programming of the innate immune responses at the monocyte level.
    • Vaccine confidence among parents: Large scale study in eighteen European countries.

      Hadjipanayis, Adamos; van Esso, Diego; Del Torso, Stefano; Dornbusch, Hans Jürgen; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Minicuci, Nadia; Pancheva, Ruzha; Mujkic, Aida; Geitmann, Karin; Syridou, Garyfallia; et al. (2020-02-05)
    • Vaccine effectiveness against influenza A(H3N2) and B among laboratory-confirmed, hospitalised older adults, Europe, 2017-18: A season of B lineage mismatched to the trivalent vaccine.

      Rose, Angela M C; Kissling, Esther; Gherasim, Alin; Casado, Itziar; Bella, Antonino; Launay, Odile; Lazăr, Mihaela; Marbus, Sierk; Kuliese, Monika; Syrjänen, Ritva; et al. (2020-05-01)
    • Vaccine preferences and acceptance of older adults.

      Eilers, R; de Melker, H E; Veldwijk, J; Krabbe, P F M (2017-05-15)
      Expanding vaccination programs for the older population might be important as older adults are becoming a larger proportion of the general population. The aim of this study is to determine the relative importance of vaccine and disease specific characteristics and acceptance for Dutch older adults, including pneumococcal disease, herpes zoster, pertussis vaccination, and influenza vaccination.
    • Vaccines to Protect Older Adults against Pneumococcal Disease.

      van de Garde, Martijn D B; Knol, Mirjam J; Rots, Nynke Y; van Baarle, Debbie; van Els, Cécile A C M (2020-01-01)
    • A validated search filter for the identification of endocrine disruptors based on the ECHA/EFSA guidance recommendations.

      Escrivá, Laura; Hessel, Ellen; Gustafsson, Susanne; van Spronsen, Rob; Svanberg, Magdalena; Beronius, Anna (2020-09-01)
    • Validation by interlaboratory trials of EN ISO 10272 - Microbiology of the food chain - Horizontal method for detection and enumeration of Campylobacter spp. - Part 1: Detection method.

      Biesta-Peters, Elisabeth G; Jongenburger, Ida; de Boer, Enne; Jacobs-Reitsma, Wilma F (2018-06-19)
      During the last decade Campylobacter has been the most commonly reported gastrointestinal bacterial infection in humans in the European Union. The use of a sensitive detection method based on enrichment of Campylobacter spp. is often needed when examining foods. However, as background flora developed resistance to third generation β-lactams used in selective culture media, the ISO method was adapted. It now consists of three different procedures (A, B, and C) depending on the expected concentration and condition of Campylobacter and the background microflora. As the diagnostic sensitivity of the detection test varies between laboratories, this justifies the validation of the method in an interlaboratory study. The matrices selected for testing in the collaborative trials were frozen spinach (procedure A, Bolton enrichment broth), minced meat (procedure A, Bolton enrichment broth), raw milk (procedure B, Preston enrichment broth), chicken skin (procedure B, Preston enrichment broth), and broiler caecal material (procedure C, direct plating on mCCD agar). Each matrix was artificially inoculated with a different Campylobacter strain at a low and high contamination level, and with sterile diluent for 'blanks'. Seventeen laboratories participated in the interlaboratory study. The sensitivity and specificity of the methods for the five selected matrices were determined, as well as the level of detection (LOD50). Calculated LOD50 values ranged from 0.84 cfu/test portion in frozen spinach and 2.2 cfu/test portion in minced meat to 14 cfu/test portion in chicken skin and 57 cfu/test portion in raw milk, all based on test portions of 10 g. The test portion size for broiler caecal material was a 10 μl-loop, yielding a LOD50 of 6.1 cfu/test portion. The validation data were incorporated in the newly published ISO standard EN ISO 10272-1:2017 - Microbiology of the food chain - Horizontal method for detection and enumeration of Campylobacter - Part 1: Detection method.
    • Validation by interlaboratory trials of EN ISO 10272 - Microbiology of the food chain - Horizontal method for detection and enumeration of Campylobacter spp. - Part 2: Colony-count technique.

      Jacobs-Reitsma, Wilma F; Jongenburger, Ida; de Boer, Enne; Biesta-Peters, Elisabeth G (2018-06-18)
      The validation in an interlaboratory study of the International Standards Organization standard method for the enumeration of Campylobacter in foods (ISO 10272-2) was performed after preparation of the revised Standard based on scientifically sound and validated methods of analysis. The matrices selected for testing in the collaborative trial were frozen spinach, minced meat, raw milk, chicken skin, and broiler caecal material. Each matrix was artificially inoculated with a different Campylobacter strain. Fifteen laboratories participated in the interlaboratory study. As a general indication of repeatability limit (r), the following overall values can be used when testing chicken skin samples: As a general indication of reproducibility limit (R), the following overall values can be used when testing chicken skin samples: The validation data for all matrices were incorporated in the newly published ISO standard EN ISO 10272-2:2017 - Microbiology of the food chain - Horizontal method for detection and enumeration of Campylobacter - Part 2: colony-count technique.
    • Validation of an algorithm for semiautomated surveillance to detect deep surgical site infections after primary total hip or knee arthroplasty-A multicenter study.

      Verberk, Janneke D M; van Rooden, Stephanie M; Koek, Mayke B G; Hetem, David J; Smilde, Annelies E; Bril, Wendy S; Streefkerk, Roel H R A; Hopmans, Titia E M; Bonten, Marc J M; de Greeff, Sabine C; et al. (2020-08-28)
    • Validation of cellular tests for Lyme borreliosis (VICTORY) study.

      van de Schoor, F R; Baarsma, M E; Gauw, S A; Joosten, L A B; Kullberg, B J; van den Wijngaard, C C; Hovius, J W (2019-08-20)
    • Validation of EN ISO 6579-1 - Microbiology of the food chain - Horizontal method for the detection, enumeration and serotyping of Salmonella - Part 1 detection of Salmonella spp.

      Mooijman, Kirsten A; Pielaat, Annemarie; Kuijpers, Angelina F A (2018-05-12)
      The European and International Standard method for the detection of Salmonella spp. in samples from the primary production stage, EN ISO 6579:2002/Amd.1:2007, was validated by an interlaboratory study in the frame of Mandate M/381, ordered by the European Commission and accepted by the European Standardisation Organisation (CEN). In addition to this study, results from two interlaboratory studies organised earlier by the European Union Reference Laboratory (EURL) for Salmonella were used for determination of the performance characteristics. Parallel to the performance evaluation for the Mandate, the revision of EN ISO 6579:2002 started. Part of this revision was the incorporation of the standardised method for detection of Salmonella in samples from the primary production stage (EN ISO 6579:2002/Amd.1:2007) and its performance characteristics in the new part 1 of EN ISO 6579. The 2002 version of EN ISO 6579 already contained performance characteristics for the detection of Salmonella in food samples, but LOD50 values (contamination level at which 50% of the samples are found positive) were not yet included. To be in line with the performance characteristics determined for detection of Salmonella spp. in samples from the primary production stage, LOD50 values for detection of Salmonella in food samples were calculated from the raw data of the validation studies performed in 2000. In this paper, the performance characteristics of EN ISO 6579-1:2017 are determined based not only on the results of the interlaboratory study carried out in 2013 under the Mandate, but also on several other interlaboratory studies. These performance characteristics consist of specificity, sensitivity and LOD50.
    • Validation of ISO method 15216 part 1 - Quantification of hepatitis A virus and norovirus in food matrices.

      Lowther, J A; Bosch, A; Butot, S; Ollivier, J; Mäde, D; Rutjes, S A; Hardouin, G; Lombard, B; In't Veld, P; Leclercq, A (2017-11-21)
      Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and norovirus are important agents of food-borne human viral illness, with common vehicles including bivalve molluscan shellfish, soft fruit and various vegetables. Outbreaks of viral illness due to contamination of the surfaces of foods, or food preparation surfaces by for example infected food handlers are also common. Virus analysis of food matrices can contribute towards risk management for these hazards and a two-part technical specification for determination of Hepatitis A virus and norovirus in food matrices (ISO/TS 15216:2013) was published jointly by the European Committee for Standardisation and the International Organization for Standardization in 2013. As part of the European Mandate No. M381 to validate 15 standards in the field of food microbiology, an international validation study involving 18 laboratories from 11 countries in Europe was conducted between 2012 and 2014. This study aimed to generate method characteristics including limit of detection, limit of quantification, repeatability and reproducibility for ISO 15216 - Part 1, the method for quantification, in seven food matrices. The organization and results of this study, including observations that led to improvements in the standard method are presented here. After its conclusion, the method characteristics generated were added to the revised international standard, ISO 15216-1:2017, published in March 2017.