• Including aspects of climate change into water safety planning: Literature review of global experience and case studies from Ethiopian urban supplies.

      Rickert, Bettina; van den Berg, Harold; Bekure, Kasa; Girma, Seble; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria (2019-06-01)
    • Increase coherence, cooperation and cross-compliance of regulations on chemicals and water quality.

      Munthe, J; Lexen, J; Skarman, T; Posthuma, L; Brack, W; Altenburger, R; Brostrom-Lunden, E; Bunke, D; Faust, M; et. al. (2019-10-21)
    • Increase in Legionnaires' disease cases associated with travel to Dubai among travellers from the United Kingdom, Sweden and the Netherlands, October 2016 to end August 2017.

      Dabrera, Gavin; Brandsema, Petra; Lofdahl, Margareta; Naik, Falguni; Cameron, Ross; McMenamin, Jim; Pebody, Richard; Phin, Nick (2017-09-21)
      Between 1 October 2016 and 31 August 2017, 51 Legionnaires' disease (LD) cases from the United Kingdom, Sweden and the Netherlands were identified with associated travel to Dubai. Cases did not all stay in the same accommodation, indicating that no single accommodation could be the source for all these infections. While local investigations continue into other potential sources, clinicians should remain alert to the possibility of LD among travellers returning from Dubai with respiratory illness.
    • Increase of invasive meningococcal serogroup W disease in Europe, 2013 to 2017.

      Krone, Manuel; Gray, Steve; Abad, Raquel; Skoczyńska, Anna; Stefanelli, Paola; van der Ende, Arie; Tzanakaki, Georgina; Mölling, Paula; João Simões, Maria; Křížová, Pavla; et al. (2019-04-01)
      BackgroundThe total incidence of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in Europe has been declining in recent years; however, a rising incidence due to serogroup W (MenW), predominantly sequence type 11 (ST-11), clonal complex 11 (cc11), was reported in some European countries.AimThe aim of this study was to compile the most recent laboratory surveillance data on MenW IMD from several European countries to assess recent trends in Europe.MethodsIn this observational, retrospective study, IMD surveillance data collected from 2013-17 by national reference laboratories and surveillance units from 13 European countries were analysed using descriptive statistics.ResultsThe overall incidence of IMD has been stable during the study period. Incidence of MenW IMD per 100,000 population (2013: 0.03; 2014: 0.05; 2015: 0.08; 2016: 0.11; 2017: 0.11) and the proportion of this serogroup among all invasive cases (2013: 5% (116/2,216); 2014: 9% (161/1,761); 2015: 13% (271/2,074); 2016: 17% (388/2,222); 2017: 19% (393/2,112)) continuously increased. The most affected countries were England, the Netherlands, Switzerland and Sweden. MenW was more frequent in older age groups (≥ 45 years), while the proportion in children (< 15 years) was lower than in other age groups. Of the culture-confirmed MenW IMD cases, 80% (615/767) were caused by hypervirulent cc11.ConclusionDuring the years 2013-17, an increase in MenW IMD, mainly caused by MenW cc11, was observed in the majority of European countries. Given the unpredictable nature of meningococcal spread and the epidemiological potential of cc11, European countries may consider preventive strategies adapted to their contexts.
    • Increased carriage of non-vaccine serotypes with low invasive disease potential four years after switching to the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in The Netherlands.

      Vissers, Marloes; Wijmenga-Monsuur, Alienke J; Knol, Mirjam J; Badoux, Paul; van Houten, Marlies A; van der Ende, Arie; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Rots, Nynke Y (2018)
      The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced in The Netherlands in 2006 and was replaced by PHiD-CV10 in 2011. Data on carriage prevalence of S. pneumoniae serotypes in children and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children and older adults were collected to examine the impact of PCVs on carriage and IPD in The Netherlands. Pneumococcal carriage prevalence was determined by conventional culture of nasopharyngeal swabs in 24-month-old children in 2015/2016. Data were compared to similar carriage studies in 2005 (pre-PCV7 introduction), 2009, 2010/2011 and 2012/2013. Invasive pneumococcal disease isolates from hospitalized children <5 years and adults >65 years (2004-2016) were obtained by sentinel surveillance. All isolates were serotyped by Quellung. Serotype invasive disease potential was calculated using carriage and nationwide IPD data in children. The overall pneumococcal carriage rate was 48% in 2015/2016, lower than in 2010/2011 (64%) and pre-vaccination in 2005 (66%). Carriage of the previously dominant non-vaccine serotypes 19A and 11A has declined since 2010/2011, from 14.2% to 4.6% and 4.2% to 2.7%, respectively, whereas carriage of serotypes 6C and 23B has increased (4.2% to 6.7% and 3.9% to 7.3%), making serotypes 6C and 23B the most prevalent carriage serotypes. IPD incidence declined in children (20/100,000 cases in 2004/2006 to 6/100,000 cases in 2015/2016) as well as in older adults (63/100,000 cases to 51/100,000 cases). Serotypes 6C, 23B and 11A have high carriage prevalence in children, but show low invasive disease potential. Serotype 8 is the main causative agent for IPD in older adults (11.3%). In conclusion, 10 years after the introduction of pneumococcal vaccination in children in The Netherlands shifts in carriage and disease serotypes are still ongoing. Surveillance of both carriage and IPD is important to assess PCV impact and to predict necessary future vaccination strategies in both children and older adults.
    • Increased cell-to-cell variation in gene expression in ageing mouse heart.

      Bahar, Rumana; Hartmann, Claudia H; Rodriguez, Karl A; Denny, Ashley D; Busuttil, Rita A; Dollé, Martijn E T; Calder, R Brent; Chisholm, Gary B; Pollock, Brad H; Klein, Christoph A; et al. (2006-06-22)
      The accumulation of somatic DNA damage has been implicated as a cause of ageing in metazoa. One possible mechanism by which increased DNA damage could lead to cellular degeneration and death is by stochastic deregulation of gene expression. Here we directly test for increased transcriptional noise in aged tissue by dissociating single cardiomyocytes from fresh heart samples of both young and old mice, followed by global mRNA amplification and quantification of mRNA levels in a panel of housekeeping and heart-specific genes. Although gene expression levels already varied among cardiomyocytes from young heart, this heterogeneity was significantly elevated at old age. We had demonstrated previously an increased load of genome rearrangements and other mutations in the heart of aged mice. To confirm that increased stochasticity of gene expression could be a result of increased genome damage, we treated mouse embryonic fibroblasts in culture with hydrogen peroxide. Such treatment resulted in a significant increase in cell-to-cell variation in gene expression, which was found to parallel the induction and persistence of genome rearrangement mutations at a lacZ reporter locus. These results underscore the stochastic nature of the ageing process, and could provide a mechanism for age-related cellular degeneration and death in tissues of multicellular organisms.
    • Increased colon cancer risk after severe Salmonella infection.

      Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Schaapveld, Michael; Kramers, Jolanda; Mooij, Sofie; Neefjes-Borst, E Andra; Pelt, Wilfrid van; Neefjes, Jacques (2018)
      Colon cancer constitutes one of the most frequent malignancies. Previous studies showed that Salmonella manipulates host cell signaling pathways and that Salmonella Typhimurium infection facilitates colon cancer development in genetically predisposed mice. This epidemiological study examined whether severe Salmonella infection, usually acquired from contaminated food, is associated with increased colon cancer risk in humans.
    • Increased risk of asthma in overweight children born large for gestational age.

      Pinto, L A; Guerra, S; Anto, J M; Postma, D; Koppelman, G H; de Jongste, J C; Gehring, U; Smit, H A; Wijga, A H (2017-08)
      Being born large for gestational age (LGA) is a marker of increased growth velocity in fetal life and a risk factor for childhood overweight. Both being born LGA and childhood overweight may influence the development of asthma, although the role of overweight in the association between LGA and childhood asthma is unclear. Importantly, recent studies have suggested that the association between overweight and asthma may be related to non-allergic pathways. If this also applies to the association between LGA and asthma, the association between being born LGA and asthma may be different for atopic and non-atopic children.
    • Increased risk of pneumonia in residents living near poultry farms: does the upper respiratory tract microbiota play a role?

      Smit, Lidwien A M; Boender, Gert Jan; de Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A A; Hagenaars, Thomas J; Huijskens, Elisabeth G W; Rossen, John W A; Koopmans, Marion; Nodelijk, Gonnie; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Yzermans, Joris; et al. (2017)
      Air pollution has been shown to increase the susceptibility to community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Previously, we observed an increased incidence of CAP in adults living within 1 km from poultry farms, potentially related to particulate matter and endotoxin emissions. We aim to confirm the increased risk of CAP near poultry farms by refined spatial analyses, and we hypothesize that the oropharyngeal microbiota composition in CAP patients may be associated with residential proximity to poultry farms.
    • Increasing awareness and prompting HIV testing: Contributions of Amsterdam HIV Testing Week 2016.

      den Daas, C; Meddens, E M; van Bergen, Jeam; de Bree, G J; Hogewoning, A A; Brinkman, K; de Wit, Jbf (2018-01-01)
      We evaluated Amsterdam HIV Testing Week (HTW) 2016 regarding its primary goals of raising awareness and prompting HIV testing. Participating services offered free, anonymous HIV testing, with a focus on reaching men who have sex with men (MSM) and people with a non-western migration background. Sociodemographic characteristics, HIV testing history, intention to test regularly, beliefs about personal risk and severity of HIV, and perceived social norms regarding HIV testing and people living with HIV were assessed among all who tested. A community quick scan assessed awareness of Amsterdam HTW 2016 and attitudes and intentions regarding HIV testing. Of 806 people tested, 59.6% (405/679) belonged to key populations. None tested HIV-positive and 37.6% intended to test regularly in the future. The community quick scan found moderate awareness of Amsterdam HTW 2016. Awareness was highest among recent testers and HIV-positive MSM and not associated with HIV testing attitudes and intentions. People tested during Amsterdam HTW 2016 were from key populations and/or were not (adequately) reached via traditional testing approaches. The contribution of the Amsterdam HTW approach to raising awareness and prompting HIV testing in key populations may benefit from focusing on HIV-negative individuals who have not been tested recently.
    • The independent predictive value of peritraumatic dissociation for postdisaster intrusions, avoidance reactions, and PTSD symptom severity: a 4-year prospective study.

      Velden, Peter G van der; Kleber, Rolf J; Christiaanse, B; Gersons, Berthold P R; Marcelissen, Frans G H; Drogendijk, Annelieke N; Grievink, Linda; Olff, Miranda; Meewisse, Mariel L (2006-08-01)
      This 4-year prospective study (N=662) of victims of a fireworks disaster examines the independent predictive value of peritraumatic dissociation for self-reported intrusions, avoidance reactions, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity at both 18-months (T2) and almost 4-years postdisaster (T3). Peritraumatic dissociation was measured 2-3 weeks after the disaster (T1). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that peritraumatic dissociation was not a strong independent predictor for intrusions and avoidance reactions and PTSD symptom severity at T2 or at T3 above initial intrusions, avoidance reactions, and psychological distress (T1). Results suggest that an early screening procedure for peritraumatic dissociation, which is aimed at identifying disaster victims who are at risk for long-term psychological disturbances can be omitted.
    • Indicators to support healthy urban gardening in urban management.

      Schram-Bijkerk, Dieneke; Otte, Piet; Dirven, Liesbet; Breure, Anton M (2018-04-15)
      Urban gardening is part of a trend towards more parks and green areas in cities, consumption of organic, locally grown products, and a closer relationship with one's own living environment. Our literature review shows that urban gardens provide opportunities for physical activity and allow people to consume homegrown fruit and vegetables. Urban gardens may also reduce stress levels of gardeners and improve social cohesion. In this way, they can help to prevent health problems. Good quality of urban soil and the functioning of soil ecosystems are indispensable prerequisites for these. We developed a framework that shows how ecosystem health and human health are interconnected in urban gardening, by placing it in the context of urban green space management and valuation. This study yields a set of indicators, which can be used to assess soil ecosystem services and health impacts. They may provide a basis for the evolving dialogue in decision-making processes and partnership activities in urban management. Recognizing the potential effects and discussing what is important to whom, might be enough to find synergies. Importantly, the initiators of urban gardens are often citizens, who seek support from other stakeholders. The social network established by gardens may contribute to health-enabling, cohesive communities involved with their living environment. To maximize health benefits, it is useful to make the urban gardens accessible to many people. This study suggests that urban gardens deserve a position in urban green space management as they may help to address societal challenges like urbanization, health and well-being in aging populations and climate adaptation.
    • Individual variation in temporal relationships between exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields and non-specific physical symptoms: A new approach in studying 'electrosensitivity'.

      Bogers, R P; van Gils, A; Clahsen, S C S; Vercruijsse, W; van Kamp, I; Baliatsas, C; Rosmalen, J G M; Bolte, J F B (2018-12)
      Everyday exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) emitted from wireless devices such as mobile phones and base stations, radio and television transmitters is ubiquitous. Some people attribute non-specific physical symptoms (NSPS) such as headache and fatigue to exposure to RF-EMF. Most previous laboratory studies or studies that analyzed populations at a group level did not find evidence of an association between RF-EMF exposure and NSPS.
    • Induction of nevi and skin tumors in Ink4a/Arf Xpa knockout mice by neonatal, intermittent, or chronic UVB exposures.

      Schanke, Arne van; Venrooij, Gemma M C A L van; Jongsma, Marjan J; Banus, H Alexander; Mullenders, Leon H F; Kranen, Henk J van; Gruijl, Frank R de (2006-03-01)
      Nevi and melanomas correlate to childhood and intermittent solar UV exposure, xeroderma pigmentosum patients run increased risk, and p16(Ink4a) expression is often lost in malignant progression. To ascertain the effect of these risk factors, pigmented hairless Ink4a/Arf-, Xpa- knockout mice were subjected to various combinations of neonatal [7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) or UVB exposure] and adult treatments (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate or subacute daily UVB exposure or intermittent overexposure). Nevi occurred earliest, grew largest, and were most numerous in mice exposed to DMBA followed by intermittent UVB overexposure [effect of six minimal edemal doses (MED), 1 x /2 weeks > 4 MED 1 x /wk]. Neonatal UV exposure enhanced nevus induction but lost its effect after 200 days. The Xpa(-/-) mice proved exquisitely sensitive to UV-driven nevus induction, indicating the involvement of pyrimidine dimer DNA lesions, but Xpa(+/+) mice developed many more nevi (>40 per mouse) at high UV dosages not tolerated by Xpa(-/-) mice. Ink4a/Arf(-/-) mice developed most skin tumors faster, but surprisingly developed nevi slower than their heterozygous counterparts especially after neonatal UV exposure. Despite raising >1,600 nevi, only six melanomas arose in our experiments with Ink4a/Arf knockout mice (five of which in Xpa(+/+) mice at high UV dosages). In contrast to human nevi, these nevi lacked hotspot mutations in Braf or Ras genes, possibly explaining the lack of malignant progression in the Ink4a/Arf(-/-) mice. Hence, although our experiments did not effectively emulate human melanoma, they provided clear evidence that intermittent UV overexposure strongly stimulates and the Ink4a/Arf(-/-) genotype may actually impair nevus development.
    • Induction of salivary antibody levels in Dutch adolescents after immunization with monovalent meningococcal serogroup C or quadrivalent meningococcal serogroup A, C, W and Y conjugate vaccine.

      van Ravenhorst, Mariëtte B; den Hartog, Gerco; van der Klis, Fiona R M; van Rooijen, Debbie M; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Berbers, Guy A M (2018)
      Meningococcal infection starts with colonisation of the upper respiratory tract. Mucosal immunity is important for protection against acquisition and subsequent meningococcal carriage. In this study, we assessed salivary antibody levels against meningococcal serogroup A (MenA), W (MenW) and Y (MenY) after vaccination with a quadrivalent MenACWY conjugated vaccine. We also compared salivary meningococcal serogroup C (MenC) antibody levels after monovalent MenC and quadrivalent MenACWY conjugated vaccination.
    • Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry in biodistribution studies of (engineered) nanoparticles

      Krystek, P; Cirtiu, CM; Braakhuis, H; Park, M; de Jong, W (2919-04-18)
    • Infecties met Leptospira en Francisella tularensis gerelateerd aan buitensportevenementen.

      Pijnacker, R; Koene, M; Goris, M; te Wierik, M; Janse, I; Tulen, A; Kortbeek, T; Voordouw, B; Franz, E (2019-03-11)