• Intake of Fat-Soluble Vitamins in the Belgian Population: Adequacy and Contribution of Foods, Fortified Foods and Supplements.

      Moyersoen, Isabelle; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Dekkers, Arnold; de Ridder, Karin; Tafforeau, Jean; van Camp, John; van Oyen, Herman; Lachat, Carl (2017-08-11)
      A key challenge of public health nutrition is to provide the majority of the population with a sufficient level of micronutrients while preventing high-consumers from exceeding the tolerable upper intake level. Data of the 2014 Belgian food consumption survey (n = 3200) were used to assess fat-soluble vitamin (vitamins A, D, E and K) intake from the consumption of foods, fortified foods and supplements. This study revealed inadequate intakes for vitamin A, from all sources, in the entire Belgian population and possible inadequacies for vitamin D. The prevalence of inadequate intake of vitamin A was lowest in children aged 3-6 (6-7%) and highest in adolescents (girls, 26%; boys, 34-37%). Except for women aged 60-64 years, more than 95% of the subjects had vitamin D intake from all sources below the adequate intake (AI) of 15 μg/day. The risk for inadequate intake of vitamins K and E was low (median > AI). Belgian fortification and supplementation practices are currently inadequate to eradicate suboptimal intakes of vitamins A and D, but increase median vitamin E intake close to the adequate intake. For vitamin A, a small proportion (1-4%) of young children were at risk of exceeding the upper intake level (UL), while for vitamin D, inclusion of supplements slightly increased the risk for excessive intakes (% > UL) in adult women and young children. The results may guide health authorities when developing population health interventions and regulations to ensure adequate intake of fat-soluble vitamins in Belgium.
    • Intake of individual fatty acids and risk of prostate cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.

      Perez-Cornago, Aurora; Huybrechts, Inge; Appleby, Paul N; Schmidt, Julie A; Crowe, Francesca L; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Kühn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena; Trichopoulou, Antonia; et al. (2019-02-26)
      The associations of individual dietary fatty acids with prostate cancer risk have not been examined comprehensively. We examined the prospective association of individual dietary fatty acids with prostate cancer risk overall, by tumor subtypes, and prostate cancer death. 142,239 men from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition who were free from cancer at recruitment were included. Dietary intakes of individual fatty acids were estimated using center-specific validated dietary questionnaires at baseline and calibrated with 24-h recalls. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). After an average follow-up of 13.9 years, 7,036 prostate cancer cases and 936 prostate cancer deaths were ascertained. Intakes of individual fatty acids were not related to overall prostate cancer risk. There was evidence of heterogeneity in the association of some short chain saturated fatty acids with prostate cancer risk by tumor stage (p
    • Intakes of 4 dietary lignans and cause-specific and all-cause mortality in the Zutphen Elderly Study.

      Milder, Ivon E J; Feskens, Edith J M; Arts, Ilja C W; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Hollman, Peter C H; Kromhout, Daan (2006-08-01)
      BACKGROUND: Plant lignans are converted to enterolignans that have antioxidant and weak estrogen-like activities, and therefore they may lower cardiovascular disease and cancer risks. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether the intakes of 4 plant lignans (lariciresinol, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol, and matairesinol) were inversely associated with coronary heart disease (CHD), cardiovascular diseases (CVD), cancer, and all-cause mortality. DESIGN: The Zutphen Elderly Study is a prospective cohort study in which 570 men aged 64-84 y were followed for 15 y. We recently developed a database and used it to estimate the dietary intakes of 4 plant lignans. Lignan intake was related to mortality with the use of Cox proportional hazards analysis. RESULTS: The median total lignan intake in 1985 was 977 microg/d. Tea, vegetables, bread, coffee, fruit, and wine were the major sources of lignan. The total lignan intake was not related to mortality. However, the intake of matairesinol was inversely associated with CHD, CVD, and all-cause mortality (P
    • Integratie van zorg: inzichten uit (onderzoeks)programma's tussen 2005 en 2017

      Vrijhoef HJM; Baan CA; Nieboer AP; Batenburg RS; Valentijn PP (2017-05)
    • Integrating Clinical and Epidemiologic Data on Allergic Diseases Across Birth Cohorts: A Harmonization Study in the Mechanisms of the Development of Allergy Project.

      Benet, Marta; Albang, Richard; Pinart, Mariona; Hohmann, Cynthia; Tischer, Christina G; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Baïz, Nour; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Lødrup Carlsen, Karin C; Carlsen, Kai-Hakon; et al. (2019-02-01)
      The numbers of international collaborations among birth cohort studies designed to better understand asthma and allergies have increased in the last several years. However, differences in definitions and methods preclude direct pooling of original data on individual participants. As part of the Mechanisms of the Development of Allergy (MeDALL) Project, we harmonized data from 14 birth cohort studies (each with 3-20 follow-up periods) carried out in 9 European countries during 1990-1998 or 2003-2009. The harmonization process followed 6 steps: 1) organization of the harmonization panel; 2) identification of variables relevant to MeDALL objectives (candidate variables); 3) proposal of a definition for each candidate variable (reference definition); 4) assessment of the compatibility of each cohort variable with its reference definition (inferential equivalence) and classification of this inferential equivalence as complete, partial, or impossible; 5) convocation of a workshop to agree on the reference definitions and classifications of inferential equivalence; and 6) preparation and delivery of data through a knowledge management portal. We agreed on 137 reference definitions. The inferential equivalence of 3,551 cohort variables to their corresponding reference definitions was classified as complete, partial, and impossible for 70%, 15%, and 15% of the variables, respectively. A harmonized database was delivered to MeDALL investigators. In asthma and allergy birth cohorts, the harmonization of data for pooled analyses is feasible, and high inferential comparability may be achieved. The MeDALL harmonization approach can be used in other collaborative projects.
    • Integrating hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV screening into tuberculosis entry screening for migrants in the Netherlands, 2013 to 2015

      Bil, Janneke P; Schrooders, Peter AG; Prins, Maria; Kouw, Peter M; Klomp, Judith HE; Scholing, Maarten; Huijbregts, Lutje PHM; Sonder, Gerard JB; Waegemaekers, Toos CHFM; de Vries, Henry JC; et al. (2018-03-15)
    • Integrating hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV screening into tuberculosis entry screening for migrants in the Netherlands, 2013 to 2015.

      Bil, Janneke P; Schrooders, Peter Ag; Prins, Maria; Kouw, Peter M; Klomp, Judith He; Scholing, Maarten; Huijbregts, Lutje Phm; Sonder, Gerard Jb; Waegemaekers, Toos Chfm; de Vries, Henry Jc; et al. (2018-03)
      We evaluated uptake and diagnostic outcomes of voluntary hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus (HCV) screening offered during routine tuberculosis entry screening to migrants in Gelderland and Amsterdam, the Netherlands, between 2013 and 2015. In Amsterdam, HIV screening was also offered. Overall, 54% (461/859) accepted screening. Prevalence of chronic HBV infection (HBsAg-positive) and HCV exposure (anti-HCV-positive) in Gelderland was 4.48% (9/201; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.37-8.29) and 0.99% (2/203; 95% CI: 0.27-3.52), respectively, all infections were newly diagnosed. Prevalence of chronic HBV infection, HCV exposure and chronic HCV infection (HCV RNA-positive) in Amsterdam was 0.39% (1/256; 95% CI: 0.07-2.18), 1.17% (3/256; 95% CI: 0.40-3.39) and 0.39% (1/256; 95% CI: 0.07-2.18), respectively, with all chronic HBV/HCV infections previously diagnosed. No HIV infections were found. In univariate analyses, newly diagnosed chronic HBV infection was more likely in participants migrating for reasons other than work or study (4.35% vs 0.83%; odds ratio (OR) = 5.45; 95% CI: 1.12-26.60) and was less likely in participants in Amsterdam than Gelderland (0.00% vs 4.48%; OR = 0.04; 95% CI: 0.00-0.69). Regional differences in HBV prevalence might be explained by differences in the populations entering compulsory tuberculosis screening. Prescreening selection of migrants based on risk factors merits further exploration.
    • Integration of drug safety monitoring in tuberculosis treatment programmes: country experiences.

      Tiemersma, Edine; van den Hof, Susan; Dravniece, Gunta; Wares, Fraser; Molla, Yohannes; Permata, Yusie; Lukitosari, Endang; Quelapio, Mamel; Aung, Si Thu; Aung, Khay Mar; et al. (2019-09-30)
    • Intensieve surveillance van Shigatoxine-producerende Escherichia coli O157 in Nederland, 2005

      Friesema, I H M; Jager, C M de; Heuvelink, A E; Zwaluw, W K van der; Maas, Henny M E; Pelt, W van; Wannet, Wim J B; Duynhoven, Yvonne T H P van (RIVM, 2006-08-01)
      Since January 1999, an enhanced surveillance of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 has been implemented in the Netherlands. In 2005, 53 symptomatic patients were diagnosed with STEC O157. This was relatively high compared with the number in previous years (annually 36 to 57), due to a national outbreak with 21 patients involved. Of the patients, 33% were hospitalised, 8% developed the haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (exclusion of outbreak-cases: 13%), including one one-year-old boy who died. Consumption of raw or undercooked beef and contact with farm animals and manure are still most frequently mentioned by the patients as possible cause. In 2005, cluster analyses of the fingerprints of bacterial DNA from the STEC O157 isolates (by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) nine times suggested a relationship between several patients. For three clusters this was supported by additional epidemiological information. One cluster, consisting of two sub clusters, comprises the national outbreak caused by filet américain, except for two patients who fell ill two and one month before this outbreak. Furthermore, one household cluster was identified for which an indistinguishable PFGE pattern was found in a manure isolate taken from their cattle. In addition, an isolate from one individual case could be matched with an isolate taken from their neighbours cattle. As other serogroups than O157 can cause serious illness, a collaboration between RIVM and eight medical microbiological laboratories to assess the relative importance of non-O157 serogroups was started in the Netherlands in the autumn of 2005.
    • Intensive Livestock Farming and Residential Health: Experts' Views.

      Eijrond, Valérie; Claassen, Liesbeth; Van Der Giessen, Joke; Timmermans, Danielle (2019-09-27)
    • The intention of Dutch general practitioners to offer vaccination against pneumococcal disease, herpes zoster and pertussis to people aged 60 years and older.

      Lehmann, Birthe A; Eilers, Renske; Mollema, Liesbeth; Ferreira, José; de Melker, Hester E (2017-06-07)
      Increasing life expectancy results in a larger proportion of older people susceptible to vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs). In the Netherlands, influenza vaccination is routinely offered to people aged 60 years and older. Vaccination against pneumococcal disease, herpes zoster and pertussis is rarely used. These vaccines will be evaluated by the Dutch Health Council and might be routinely offered to older people in the near future. Possible expansion of the program depends partly on the willingness of general practitioners (GPs) to endorse additional vaccinations. In this study, we assessed predictors of GPs' attitude and intention to vaccinate people aged 60 years and older.
    • Intention to vaccinate universally against varicella, rotavirus gastroenteritis, meningococcal B disease and seasonal influenza among parents in the Netherlands: an internet survey.

      van Lier, Alies; Ferreira, José A; Mollema, Liesbeth; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; de Melker, Hester E (2017-12-04)
      For the decision-making process regarding introduction of new vaccines into the National Immunisation Programme (NIP), advance insight into the potential acceptance among the population is relevant. We studied the intention of parents to have their child vaccinated against four diseases not currently covered by the NIP in the Netherlands. The results on varicella have been published before; this article adds the results on vaccination against rotavirus gastroenteritis, meningococcal B disease, and seasonal influenza.
    • Interaction between genes and macronutrient intake on the risk of developing type 2 diabetes: systematic review and findings from European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-InterAct.

      Li, Sherly X; Imamura, Fumiaki; Ye, Zheng; Schulze, Matthias B; Zheng, Jusheng; Ardanaz, Eva; Arriola, Larraitz; Boeing, Heiner; Dow, Courtney; Fagherazzi, Guy; et al. (2017-07)
      Background: Gene-diet interactions have been reported to contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, to our knowledge, few examples have been consistently replicated to date.Objective: We aimed to identify existing evidence for gene-macronutrient interactions and T2D and to examine the reported interactions in a large-scale study.Design: We systematically reviewed studies reporting gene-macronutrient interactions and T2D. We searched the MEDLINE, Human Genome Epidemiology Network, and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform electronic databases to identify studies published up to October 2015. Eligibility criteria included assessment of macronutrient quantity (e.g., total carbohydrate) or indicators of quality (e.g., dietary fiber) by use of self-report or objective biomarkers of intake. Interactions identified in the review were subsequently examined in the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer)-InterAct case-cohort study (n = 21,148, with 9403 T2D cases; 8 European countries). Prentice-weighted Cox regression was used to estimate country-specific HRs, 95% CIs, and P-interaction values, which were then pooled by random-effects meta-analysis. A primary model was fitted by using the same covariates as reported in the published studies, and a second model adjusted for additional covariates and estimated the effects of isocaloric macronutrient substitution.Results: Thirteen observational studies met the eligibility criteria (n < 1700 cases). Eight unique interactions were reported to be significant between macronutrients [carbohydrate, fat, saturated fat, dietary fiber, and glycemic load derived from self-report of dietary intake and circulating n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids] and genetic variants in or near transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2), gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor (GIPR), caveolin 2 (CAV2), and peptidase D (PEPD) (P-interaction < 0.05). We found no evidence of interaction when we tried to replicate previously reported interactions. In addition, no interactions were detected in models with additional covariates.Conclusions: Eight gene-macronutrient interactions were identified for the risk of T2D from the literature. These interactions were not replicated in the EPIC-InterAct study, which mirrored the analyses undertaken in the original reports. Our findings highlight the importance of independent replication of reported interactions.
    • Interaction of zero valent copper nanoparticles with algal cells under simulated natural conditions: Particle dissolution kinetics, uptake and heteroaggregation.

      Arenas-Lago, Daniel; Monikh, Fazel Abdolahpur; Vijver, Martina G; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M (2019-11-01)
      Some metal-based engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) undergo fast dissolution and/or aggregation when they are released in the environment. The underlying processes are controlled by psychochemical/biological parameters of the environment and the properties of the particles. In this study, we investigated the interaction between algal cells and zero valent copper nanoparticles (Cu0-ENPs) to elucidate how the cells influence the dissolution and aggregation kinetics of the particles and how these kinetics influence the cellular uptake of Cu. Our finding showed that the concentration of dissolved Cu ([Cu]dissolved) in the supernatant of the culture media without algal cells was higher than the [Cu]dissolved in the media with algal cells. In the absence of the cells, dissolved organic matter (DOC) increased the dissolution of the particle due to increasing the stability of the particles against aggregation, thus increasing the available surface area. In the presence of algae, Cu0-ENPs heteroaggregated with the cells. Thus, the available surface area decreased over time and this resulted in a low dissolution rate of the particles. The DOC corona on the surface of the particles increased the heteroaggregation of the particles with the cells and decreases the uptake of the particles. Our findings showed that microorganisms influence the fate of ENPs in the environment, and they do so by modifying the dissolution and aggregation kinetics of the Cu0-ENPs.
    • Interactions Between Genome-Wide Significant Genetic Variants and Circulating Concentrations of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Relation to Prostate Cancer Risk in the National Cancer Institute BPC3.

      Dimitrakopoulou, Vasiliki I; Travis, Ruth C; Shui, Irene M; Mondul, Alison; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Agudo, Antonio; Boeing, Heiner; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Gunter, Marc J; et al. (2017-03-15)
      Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified over 100 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with prostate cancer. However, information on the mechanistic basis for some associations is limited. Recent research has been directed towards the potential association of vitamin D concentrations and prostate cancer, but little is known about whether the aforementioned genetic associations are modified by vitamin D. We investigated the associations of 46 GWAS-identified SNPs, circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), and prostate cancer (3,811 cases, 511 of whom died from the disease, compared with 2,980 controls-from 5 cohort studies that recruited participants over several periods beginning in the 1980s). We used logistic regression models with data from the National Cancer Institute Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3) to evaluate interactions on the multiplicative and additive scales. After allowing for multiple testing, none of the SNPs examined was significantly associated with 25(OH)D concentration, and the SNP-prostate cancer associations did not differ by these concentrations. A statistically significant interaction was observed for each of 2 SNPs in the 8q24 region (rs620861 and rs16902094), 25(OH)D concentration, and fatal prostate cancer on both multiplicative and additive scales (P ≤ 0.001). We did not find strong evidence that associations between GWAS-identified SNPs and prostate cancer are modified by circulating concentrations of 25(OH)D. The intriguing interactions between rs620861 and rs16902094, 25(OH)D concentration, and fatal prostate cancer warrant replication.
    • The interactive effects of diclofop-methyl and silver nanoparticles on Arabidopsis thaliana: Growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant system.

      Li, Xingxing; Ke, Mingjing; Zhang, Meng; Peijnenburg, W J G M; Fan, Xiaoji; Xu, Jiahui; Zhang, Zhenyan; Lu, Tao; Fu, Zhengwei; Qian, Haifeng (2018-01)
      Diclofop-methyl (DM), a common post-emergence herbicide, is frequently used in agricultural production. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most widely used nanoparticles, and as such, have been detected and monitored in several environmental systems. Here we investigated the interactive effects of DM and AgNPs on the physiological morphology, photosynthesis and antioxidant system of Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results demonstrated that a 1.0 mg/L DM treatment had no significant effect on the fresh weight of plant shoots and the content of total chlorophyll and anthocyanin. However, a 0.5 mg/L AgNPs treatment was found to significantly inhibit plant growth and chlorophyll synthesis, and was found to cause more severe oxidative damage in plants compared to the effects observed in a hydroponic suspension in which DM and AgNPs were jointly present. Meanwhile, the relative transcript levels of photosynthesis related genes (psbA, rbcL, pgrl1A and pgrl1B) in the combined group were found to be slightly increased compared to transcript levels in the AgNPs group, in order to maintain ATP generation at relatively normal levels in order to repair light damage. One explanation for these observed antagonistic effects was that the existence of DM affects the stability of AgNPs and reduced Ag+ release from AgNPs in the mixed solution. Thereupon, the Ag+-content was found to decrease in shoots and roots in the combined group by 15.2% and 9.4% respectively, compared to the AgNPs group. The coexistence of herbicides and nanomaterials in aquatic environments or soil systems will continue to exist due to their wide usages. Our current study highlights that the antagonistic effects between DM and AgNPs exerted a positive impact on A. thaliana growth.
    • Interactive effects of rice straw biochar and γ-AlO on immobilization of Zn.

      Wu, Ping; Cui, Peixin; Alves, Marcelo E; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Liu, Cun; Zhou, Dongmei; Wang, Hailong; Ok, Yong Sik; Wang, Yujun (2019-03-19)
      Biochar system technology has been proved as a sustainable remediation method for metal contaminated soils. However, little attention has been paid to the interaction between biochar and oxide minerals and their influence on metal immobilization in soils. In this study, batch-type Zn sorption experiments were conducted using the mixture of γ-Al
    • Interim 2017/18 influenza seasonal vaccine effectiveness: combined results from five European studies

      Rondy, M; Kissling, E; Emborg, HD; Gherasim, A; Meijer, A; van den Brink, S; van der Hoek, W; Goderski, G; Wijsman, L; Bagheri, M; et al. (2019-12-12)
    • Intermediate Susceptibility Dose-Dependent Breakpoints For High Dose Rifampicin, Isoniazid and Pyrazinamide Treatment in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis Programmes.

      Zuur, Marlanka A; Pasipanodya, Jotam G; van Soolingen, Dick; van der Werf, Tjip S; Gumbo, Tawanda; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C (2018-04-24)
      In infectious diseases, for some drugs, bacterial susceptibility is categorized as susceptible, intermediate-susceptible dose-dependent (ISDD), and resistant. The strategy is to use higher doses of first-line agents in the ISDD category, thereby preserving the use of these drugs. This system has not been applied to anti-tuberculosis drugs. Pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) target exposures, in tandem with Monte Carlo experiments (MCE), recently identified susceptibility breakpoints of 0.0312 mg/L for isoniazid, 0.0625 mg/L for rifampicin, and 50 mg/L for pyrazinamide. These have been confirmed in clinical studies.
    • Internal consistency of a synthetic population construction method for chronic disease micro-simulation models.

      Kooiker, René; Boshuizen, Hendriek C (2018-01-01)
      Micro-simulation models of risk-factors and chronic diseases are built increasingly often, and each model starts with an initial population. Constructing such populations when no survey data covering all variables are available is no trivial task, often requiring complex methods based on several (untested) assumptions. In this paper, we propose a method for evaluating the merits of construction methods, and apply this to one specific method: the construction method used in the DYNAMO-HIA model. The initial population constructed using the DYNAMO-HIA method is compared to another population constructed by starting a simulation with only newborns and simulating the course taken by one risk-factor and several diseases. In this simulation, the age- and sex-specific prevalence of the risk-factor is kept constant over time. Our simulations show that, in general, the DYNAMO-HIA method clearly outperforms a method that assumes independence of the risk-factor and the prevalence of diseases and independence between all diseases. In many situations the DYNAMO-HIA method performs reasonably well, but in some the proportion with the risk-factor for those with a disease is under- or overestimated by as much as 10 percentage points. For determining comorbidity between diseases linked by a common causal disease or a common risk-factor it also performs reasonably well. However, the current method performs poorly for determining the comorbidity between one disease caused by the other. The DYNAMO-HIA methods perform reasonably well; they outperform a baseline assumption of independence between the risk-factor and diseases in the initial population. The method for determining the comorbidity between diseases that are causally linked needs improvement. Given the existing discrepancies for situations with high relative risks, however, developing more elaborate methods based on running simulation models to generate an initial population would be worthwhile.