• Policy and practice of programmatic management of latent tuberculosis infection in The Netherlands

      de Vries, Gerard; van Hest, Rob; Bakker, Marleen; Erkens, Connie; van den Hof, Susan; Meijer, Wieneke; Oud, Karen; Slump, Erika; van Dissel, Jaap (2017-05)
    • Policy Making in Newborn Screening Needs a Structured and Transparent Approach.

      Jansen, Marleen E; Lister, Karla J; van Kranen, Henk J; Cornel, Martina C (2017-03-21)
      Newborn bloodspot screening (NBS) programs have expanded significantly in the past years and are expected to expand further with the emergence of genetic technologies. Historically, NBS expansion has often occurred following ad hoc consideration of conditions, instead of a structured and transparent approach. In this review, we explore issues pertinent to NBS policy making, through the lens of the policy cycle: (a) agenda setting, (b) policy advice, (c) policy decision, (d) implementation, and (e) evaluation.
    • Polio and Measles Down the Drain: Environmental Enterovirus Surveillance in the Netherlands, 2005 to 2015.

      Benschop, Kimberley S M; van der Avoort, Harrie G; Jusic, Edin; Vennema, Harry; van Binnendijk, Rob; Duizer, Erwin (2017-07-01)
      Polioviruses (PVs) are members of the genus Enterovirus In the Netherlands, the exclusion of PV circulation is based on clinical enterovirus (EV) surveillance (CEVS) of EV-positive cases and routine environmental EV surveillance (EEVS) conducted on sewage samples collected in the region of the Netherlands where vaccination coverage is low due to religious reasons. We compared the EEVS data to those of the CEVS to gain insight into the relevance of EEVS for poliovirus and nonpolio enterovirus surveillance. Following the polio outbreak in Syria, EEVS was performed at the primary refugee center in Ter Apel in the Netherlands, and data were compared to those of CEVS and EEVS. Furthermore, we assessed the feasibility of poliovirus detection by EEVS using measles virus detection in sewage during a measles outbreak as a proxy. Two Sabin-like PVs were found in routine EEVS, 11 Sabin-like PVs were detected in the CEVS, and one Sabin-like PV was found in the Ter Apel sewage. We observed significant differences between the three programs regarding which EVs were found. In 6 sewage samples collected during the measles outbreak in 2013, measles virus RNA was detected in regions where measles cases were identified. In conclusion, we detected PVs, nonpolio EVs, and measles virus in sewage and showed that environmental surveillance is useful for poliovirus detection in the Netherlands, where live oral poliovirus vaccine is not used and communities with lower vaccination coverage exist. EEVS led to the detection of EV types not seen in the CEVS, showing that EEVS is complementary to CEVS.IMPORTANCE We show that environmental enterovirus surveillance complements clinical enterovirus surveillance for poliovirus detection, or exclusion, and for nonpolio enterovirus surveillance. Even in the presence of adequate surveillance, only a very limited number of Sabin-like poliovirus strains were detected in a 10-year period, and no signs of transmission of oral polio vaccine (OPV) strains were found in a country using exclusively inactivated polio vaccine (IPV). Measles viruses can be detected during an outbreak in sewage samples collected and concentrated following procedures used for environmental enterovirus surveillance.
    • The polio eradication effort has been a great success--let's finish it and replace it with something even better.

      Kimman, Tjeerd G; Boot, Hein J (2006-10-01)
      The polio eradication campaign has greatly reduced the effects of this disease, but many new challenges have emerged. These challenges include the occurrence of polio outbreaks caused by wild-type polioviruses or circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) in areas where vaccination coverage is low, the existence of people who excrete poliovirus persistently, and the inability to know definitely that poliovirus has gone. As a result, there is uncertainty about if, when, and how we can end polio immunisation. In this article, we discuss several scenarios for the future of polio control. Because the emergence of cVDPVs necessitates discontinuing the use of live oral polio vaccine, we propose to strive towards a global coverage of near 100% vaccination against all major childhood infections using combination vaccines that contain inactivated poliovirus vaccine. Such a policy will present multiple challenges.
    • Polio-eradicatie: enterovirussurveillance en poliovirusdetectie in Nederland in 2015

      Benschop K; Avoort H van der; Broek I van den (2017-05-29)
    • Poliovirus-specific memory immunity in seronegative elderly people does not protect against virus excretion.

      Abbink, Frithjofna; Buisman, Anne M; Doornbos, Gerda; Woldman, Jan; Kimman, Tjeerd G; Conyn- van Spaendonck, Marina A E (2005-03-15)
      BACKGROUND: Dutch people born between 1925 and 1945 were ineligible for vaccination with the inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) introduced in 1957 and may have escaped natural infection because of reduced poliovirus circulation. We examined whether people with low or undetectable antibody levels are susceptible to infection and whether memory immunity provides protection against virus excretion. METHODS: A total of 429 elderly participants were challenged with monovalent oral poliovirus vaccine (type 1 or 3) and followed for 8 weeks. Immune responses and virus excretion were compared for 4 groups, defined on the basis of seronegativity for poliovirus type 1 or 3, natural immunity, and IPV-induced immunity. RESULTS: On the basis of the rapidity of the antibody response and the absence of immunoglobulin M, we saw clear evidence of memory immune responses in 33% of the participants without detectable antibodies against poliovirus type 1 and in 5% of the participants without detectable antibodies against poliovirus type 3. Fecal virus-excretion patterns were not significantly different for seronegative participants, regardless of whether they showed evidence of memory immunity. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid antibody responses after challenge with oral polio vaccine provide evidence for poliovirus-specific memory immunity in seronegative elderly people. However, in contrast to preexisting immunity, memory immunity does not protect against virus excretion. These results have important implications for the poliomyelitis-eradication initiative, in particular for future immunization policies after eradication has been achieved.
    • Poly Implant Prothèse Silicone Breast Explants: Chemical Analysis of Silicone Gel and Implant Shell.

      Bachour, Yara; Heinze, Zavira; van Selms, Gijs; Ritt, Marco; Niessen, Frank; Keizers, Peter (2019-01-01)
      Poly Implant Prothèse (PIP) silicone breast implants were removed from the market between 2010 and 2012 because of the use of nonmedical grade silicone filler. The chemical and physico-chemical properties of PIP implants have been analyzed by several groups. In addition, our previous study illustrated that PIP implant shells were more permeable. Therefore, we analyzed the chemical composition of the envelope and gel of PIP silicone breast explants. Also, the composition of absorbed material into the implant was analyzed. This study was conducted on 3 PIP implants explanted from 2 patients. The envelope was analyzed using Raman microscopy, whereas the gel was analyzed using near-infrared spectra, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Absorbed material was investigated with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The 3 implants appeared to be Rofil implants, and all implants displayed a yellow color. None of the envelope showed a barrier layer. Amounts of D4, D5, and D6 were found to be below 100 ppm. Water was found in all 3 implants and also proteins were absorbed into the implants. The current study shows that the analyzed implants originate from the manufacturer Rofil but have PIP1 hallmarks. Apparently, these are own brand labeling implants. The presence of water and proteins in the explants indicate exchange of small and large molecules into the explants, even in the implant with a visually intact envelope. Because of the PIP1 hallmarks of the Rofil implants, patients with such implants are advised to be counseled by their physicians.
    • Polymorphisms in the genes involved in the arachidonic acid-pathway, fish consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer.

      Siezen, Christine L E; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H M; Kram, Nicolien R; Doeselaar, Marina van; Kranen, Henk J van (2006-07-15)
      The objective of this study on colorectal cancer was to investigate the associations between SNPs in the genes involved in the arachidonic acid (AA)-pathway, their haplotypes and colorectal cancer. Moreover, interactions between SNPs and fish consumption were considered. In this study, a total of 508 cases and 772 controls were included, originating from 2 prospective cohorts, the Monitoring Project on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors (PPHV) and Diagnostisch Onderzoek Mammacarcinoom (DOM). Genotypes of 23 SNPs in 7 candidate genes were determined and the modifying effect of fish consumption was considered. A protective effect of the minor allele of SNP V102V in PTGS2 was observed (odds ratio (OR), 0.37; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 0.16-0.87). The haplotype representing this allele showed a weaker inverse association, indicating that 2 alleles are necessary to obtain this protective effect. Fish consumption data was available for 209 cases and 418 controls. Increased fish consumption was inversely associated with cancer, although not significant (OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.57-1.20). Despite the substantial reductions in cancer risk for some genotypes in combination with high fish intake, no significant interactions between any SNP studied and fish consumption were observed. We have previously described an association between colorectal adenomas and SNP V102V in PTGS2 and have now confirmed this association for colorectal adenocarcinomas. Fish consumption of once a week or more might protect against colorectal cancer, but no significant interactions with SNPs in the genes involved in the AA-pathway could be detected within the study.
    • Polymorphisms in the NPY and AGRP genes and body fatness in Dutch adults.

      Rossum, Caroline T M van; Pijl, H; Adan, R A H; Hoebee, Barbara; Seidell, J C (2006-10-01)
      OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between DNA polymorphisms in the NPY and AGRP genes and body fatness. DESIGN AND METHODS: The association between the AGRP Ala67Thr or the NPY Leu7Pro polymorphisms and indicators of body fatness (baseline leptin levels, body mass index (BMI) values and prevalence of overweight) are investigated in 582 participants of two large cohorts in The Netherlands (total 18 500 adult men and women), aged 20-40 years whose weight remained relatively constant or whose weight increased substantially (range 5.5-47 kg) during a mean follow-up of 7 years. RESULTS: No consistent associations were found for the indicators of body fatness for men and women. Among women, BMI values, leptin levels and prevalence of overweight were not statistically different for carriers of the mutant alleles compared to that of the non-carriers. Among men, carriers of the Thr67-allele of the AGRP gene had similar leptin levels, but higher BMI values compared to those with the genotyping Ala67/Ala67: mean adjusted BMI 25.6 kg/m2 (95% CI 24.3-27.0) vs 23.9 kg/m2 (23.6-24.3). Also, the risk of being overweight at baseline tended to be higher for male carriers of the Thr67-allele of the AGRP gene (OR 2.52; 95% CI 0.86-7.4). Furthermore, male carriers of the Pro7-allele of the NPY gene had on average higher leptin levels and BMI values vs non-carriers of this allele: 4.7 microg/l (95% CI 3.7-6.0) and 25.7 kg/m2 (95% CI 24.4-27.0) vs 3.1 microg/l (95% CI 2.9-3.4) and 23.9 kg/m2 (95% CI 23.5-24.3), respectively. These male carriers had also a higher risk on being overweight at baseline (OR 3.3 (95% CI 1.2-8.9)) compared to non-carriers of the Pro7-allele. CONCLUSION: The consistent findings among men suggest that the NPY Leu7Pro polymorphism (or another linked marker) might be involved in the development of obesity at younger ages. The findings for the AGRP Ala67Thr were less consistent and need further investigation. Among women, these polymorphisms do not play an important role.
    • Polymorphisms of genes coding for insulin-like growth factor 1 and its major binding proteins, circulating levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 and breast cancer risk: results from the EPIC study.

      Canzian, F; McKay, J D; Cleveland, R J; Dossus, Laure; Biessy, Carine; Rinaldi, Sabina; Landi, S; Boillot, C; Monnier, S; Chajès, V; et al. (2006-01-30)
      Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) stimulates cell proliferation and can enhance the development of tumours in different organs. Epidemiological studies have shown that an elevated level of circulating IGF-I is associated with increased risk of breast cancer, as well as of other cancers. Most of circulating IGF-I is bound to an acid-labile subunit and to one of six insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs), among which the most important are IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-1. Polymorphisms of the IGF1 gene and of genes encoding for the major IGF-I carriers may predict circulating levels of IGF-I and have an impact on cancer risk. We tested this hypothesis with a case-control study of 807 breast cancer patients and 1588 matched control subjects, nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. We genotyped 23 common single nucleotide polymorphisms in IGF1, IGFBP1, IGFBP3 and IGFALS, and measured serum levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in samples of cases and controls. We found a weak but significant association of polymorphisms at the 5' end of the IGF1 gene with breast cancer risk, particularly among women younger than 55 years, and a strong association of polymorphisms located in the 5' end of IGFBP3 with circulating levels of IGFBP-3, which confirms previous findings. Common genetic variation in these candidate genes does not play a major role in altering breast cancer risk in Caucasians.
    • Populatiegerichte aanpak voor verbinding van preventie, zorg en welzijn

      Lemmens, L C; Drewes, H W; Lette, M; Baan, C A (2017)
      To map initiatives in the Netherlands using a population-targeted approach to link prevention, care and welfare.
    • Population health management guiding principles to stimulate collaboration and improve pharmaceutical care.

      Steenkamer, Betty; Baan, Caroline; Putters, Kim; van Oers, Hans; Drewes, Hanneke (2018-04-09)
      Purpose A range of strategies to improve pharmaceutical care has been implemented by population health management (PHM) initiatives. However, which strategies generate the desired outcomes is largely unknown. The purpose of this paper is to identify guiding principles underlying collaborative strategies to improve pharmaceutical care and the contextual factors and mechanisms through which these principles operate. Design/methodology/approach The evaluation was informed by a realist methodology examining the links between PHM strategies, their outcomes and the contexts and mechanisms by which these strategies operate. Guiding principles were identified by grouping context-specific strategies with specific outcomes. Findings In total, ten guiding principles were identified: create agreement and commitment based on a long-term vision; foster cooperation and representation at the board level; use layered governance structures; create awareness at all levels; enable interpersonal links at all levels; create learning environments; organize shared responsibility; adjust financial strategies to market contexts; organize mutual gains; and align regional agreements with national policies and regulations. Contextual factors such as shared savings influenced the effectiveness of the guiding principles. Mechanisms by which these guiding principles operate were, for instance, fostering trust and creating a shared sense of the problem. Practical implications The guiding principles highlight how collaboration can be stimulated to improve pharmaceutical care while taking into account local constraints and possibilities. The interdependency of these principles necessitates effectuating them together in order to realize the best possible improvements and outcomes. Originality/value This is the first study using a realist approach to understand the guiding principles underlying collaboration to improve pharmaceutical care.
    • Population-level impact, herd immunity, and elimination after human papillomavirus vaccination: a systematic review and meta-analysis of predictions from transmission-dynamic models.

      Brisson, Marc; Bénard, Élodie; Drolet, Mélanie; Bogaards, Johannes A; Baussano, Iacopo; Vänskä, Simopekka; Jit, Mark; Boily, Marie-Claude; Smith, Megan A; Berkhof, Johannes; et al. (2016-11)
      Modelling studies have been widely used to inform human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination policy decisions; however, many models exist and it is not known whether they produce consistent predictions of population-level effectiveness and herd effects. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of model predictions of the long-term population-level effectiveness of vaccination against HPV 16, 18, 6, and 11 infection in women and men, to examine the variability in predicted herd effects, incremental benefit of vaccinating boys, and potential for HPV-vaccine-type elimination.
    • Porcine blood used as ingredient in meat productions may serve as a vehicle for hepatitis E virus transmission.

      Boxman, Ingeborg L A; Jansen, Claudia C C; Hägele, Geke; Zwartkruis-Nahuis, Ans; Cremer, Jeroen; Vennema, Harry; Tijsma, Aloys S L (2017-09-18)
      The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the use of porcine blood(products) in food could be a risk for a hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection. HEV RNA was detected in 33/36 batches of (non-heated) liquid products and in 7/24 spray dried powder products. Contamination levels varied among the products, but were highest in liquid whole blood, plasma and fibrinogen reaching levels of 2.2×102 to 2.8×102 HEV genome copies per 0.2g. Sequence analyses revealed genotype 3 strains, of which two were 100% (493nt) identical to recently diagnosed HEV cases, although no direct epidemiological link was established. The industry provided information on processing of blood products in (ready-to-eat)-meat. From this, it was concluded that blood products as an ingredient of processed meat may not be sufficiently heated prior to consumption, and therefore could be a vehicle for transmission.
    • Positive experiences of volunteers working in deployable laboratories in West Africa during the Ebola outbreak.

      Belfroid, Evelien; Mollers, Madelief; Smit, Pieter W; Hulscher, Marlies; Koopmans, Marion; Reusken, Chantal; Timen, Aura (2018)
      The largest outbreak of Ebola virus disease ever started in West Africa in December 2013; it created a pressing need to expand the workforce dealing with it. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the experiences of volunteers from the European Union who worked in deployable laboratories in West Africa during the outbreak. This study is part of the EMERGE project. We assessed the experiences of 251 volunteers with a 19-item online questionnaire. The questions asked about positive aspects of volunteering such as learning new skills, establishing a new path in life, and changing life values. Other questionnaire subjects were the compliance to follow-up measures, the extent to which volunteers felt these measures restricted their daily activities, the fear of stigmatization, and worries about becoming infected or infecting their families. The volunteers reported positive effects that reached far beyond their daily work, such as changes in life priorities and a greater appreciation of the value of their own lives. Although the volunteers did not feel that temperature monitoring restricted their daily activities, full compliance to temperature monitoring and reporting it to the authorities was low. The volunteers did not fear Ebola infection for themselves or their families and were not afraid of stigmatization. With respect to the burden on the families, 50% reported that their family members were worried that the volunteer would be infected with Ebola virus. Altogether, the positive experiences of the volunteers in this study far outweigh the negative implications and constitute an important argument for inspiring people who intend to join such missions and for motivating the hesitant ones.
    • Post-disaster mental health problems and the utilization of mental health services: a four-year longitudinal comparative study.

      Velden, Peter G van der; Grievink, Linda; Kleber, Rolf J; Drogendijk, Annelieke N; Roskam, Albert-Jan R; Marcelissen, Frans G H; Olff, Miranda; Meewisse, Mariel L; Gersons, Berthold P R (2006-05-01)
      This study examined mental health problems and mental health services (MHS) utilization after a fireworks disaster among adult survivors and a comparison group. The disaster took place on May 13, 2000, in the city of Enschede, The Netherlands. Victims (N=662) participated in a survey 2-3 weeks (T1), 18 months (T2) and 4 years (T3) post-disaster. The comparison group consisted of non-affected people from another city (N=526). They participated at T2 and T3. Victims used MHS more often than the comparison group in the 12-month period before T2 and T3 (OR 3.9 and 2.4). Victims with severe depression and anxiety symptoms at T2 used MHS more often than participants in the comparison group with these symptoms (OR 2.6 and 2.0). After 4 years, MHS utilization among participants in both groups with anxiety symptoms did not differ, suggesting attenuation of the observed effects. Results suggest that after a disaster survivors with mental health problems are less reluctant to use MHS than under normal circumstances.
    • Postoperatieve wondinfecties: incidentie- of prevalentiesurveillance?

      Meijs AP; Broek I van den; Hopmans TEM; Broek I van den; Vos MC; Geerlings SE; Koek MBG (2016-06)
    • Potential effectiveness of prophylactic HPV immunization for men who have sex with men in the Netherlands: A multi-model approach.

      Bogaards, Johannes A; Mooij, Sofie H; Xiridou, Maria; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F (2019-03-01)
      Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for anal cancer, primarily related to human papillomavirus genotype 16 (HPV16) infections. At 8.5 per 100,000 per year, the incidence rate of anal cancer among MSM is similar to that of cervical cancer among adult women in the Netherlands. However, MSM are not included in most HPV vaccination programs. We explored the potential effectiveness of prophylactic immunization in reducing anogenital HPV16 transmission among MSM in the Netherlands. We developed a range of mathematical models for penile-anal HPV16 transmission, varying in sexual contact structure and natural history of infection, to provide robust and plausible predictions about the effectiveness of targeted vaccination. Models were informed by an observational cohort study among MSM in Amsterdam, 2010-2013. Parameters on sexual behavior and HPV16 infections were obtained by fitting the models to data from 461 HIV-negative study participants, considered representative of the local MSM population. We assumed 85% efficacy of vaccination against future HPV16 infections as reported for HIV-negative MSM, and age-specific uptake rates similar to those for hepatitis B vaccination among MSM in the Netherlands. Targeted vaccination was contrasted with vaccination of 12-year-old boys at 40% uptake in base-case scenarios, and we also considered the effectiveness of a combined strategy. Offering vaccine to MSM without age restrictions resulted in a model-averaged 27.3% reduction (90% prediction interval [PI] 11.9%-37.5%) in prevalence of anal HPV16 infections, assuming similar uptake among MSM as achieved for hepatitis B vaccination. The predicted reduction improved to 46.1% (90% PI 21.8%-62.4%) if uptake rates among MSM were doubled. The reductions in HPV16 infection prevalence were mostly achieved within 30 years of a targeted immunization campaign, during which they exceeded those induced by vaccinating 40% of preadolescent boys, if started simultaneously. The reduction in anal HPV16 prevalence amounted to 74.8% (90% PI 59.8%-93.0%) under a combined vaccination strategy. HPV16 prevalence reductions mostly exceeded vaccine coverage projections among MSM, illustrating the efficiency of prophylactic immunization even when the HPV vaccine is given after sexual debut. Mode of protection was identified as the key limitation to potential effectiveness of targeted vaccination, as the projected reductions were strongly reduced if we assumed no protection against future infections in recipients with prevalent infection or infection-derived immunity at the time of immunization. Unverified limitations of our study include the sparsity of data to inform the models, the omission of oral sex in transmission to the penile or anal site, and the restriction that our modeling results apply primarily to HIV-negative MSM. Our findings suggest that targeted vaccination may generate considerable reductions in anogenital HPV16 infections among MSM, and has the potential to accelerate anal cancer prevention, especially when combined with sex-neutral vaccination in preadolescence.
    • Potential gains in health expectancy by improving lifestyle: an application for European regions.

      Füssenich, Koen; Nusselder, Wilma J; Lhachimi, Stefan K; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Feenstra, Talitha F (2019-01-17)
      Prevention aiming at smoking, alcohol consumption, and BMI could potentially bring large gains in life expectancy (LE) and health expectancy measures such as Healthy Life Years (HLY) and Life Expectancy in Good Perceived Health (LEGPH) in the European Union. However, the potential gains might differ by region. A Sullivan life table model was applied for 27 European countries to calculate the impact of alternative scenarios of lifestyle behavior on life and health expectancy. Results were then pooled over countries to present the potential gains in HLY and LEGPH for four European regions. Simulations show that up to 4 years of extra health expectancy can be gained by getting all countries to the healthiest levels of lifestyle observed in EU countries. This is more than the 2 years to be gained in life expectancy. Generally, Eastern Europe has the lowest LE, HLY, and LEGPH. Even though the largest gains in LEPGH and HLY can also be made in Eastern Europe, the gap in LE, HLY, and LEGPH can only in a small part be closed by changing smoking, alcohol consumption, and BMI. Based on the current data, up to 4 years of good health could be gained by adopting lifestyle as seen in the best-performing countries. Only a part of the lagging health expectancy of Eastern Europe can potentially be solved by improvements in lifestyle involving smoking and BMI. Before it is definitely concluded that lifestyle policy for alcohol use is of relatively little importance compared to smoking or BMI, as our findings suggest, better data should be gathered in all European countries concerning alcohol use and the odds ratios of overconsumption of alcohol.
    • the potential of AGE MODE, an age-dependent model, to estimate usual intakes and prevalences of inadequate intakes in a population.

      Waijers, Patricia M C M; Dekkers, Arnold L M; Boer, Jolanda M A; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Rossum, Caroline T M van (2006-11-01)
      Dietary intake data often stem from short-term measurements. However, for dietary assessment, generally the habitual intake distribution is of interest. Currently, habitual intake distributions are often estimated separately for subgroups of gender and age and do not take into account the variation in intake caused by age within age groups. Therefore, we developed an age-dependent dietary assessment model, which was demonstrated and tested using folate intakes from the third Dutch National Food Consumption Survey, conducted in 1997/98. The proposed model produced estimates of the mean habitual intake and intake percentiles as a function of age. The methodology has clear advantages in estimating habitual intakes in children. Also, given the large variation in intakes of several dietary components, estimated habitual intakes produced by other methods may have low precision and be less reliable if numbers are small. In our age-dependent model, all available data can be used to estimate the parameters of the habitual intake distribution, improving the precision of the estimates, and providing consistent estimates for a larger population sample as no subgroups need to be created. Although the model may still be further developed, the feature of age dependency shows clear advantages above methods currently used to estimate habitual intakes.