• Body mass index, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio and serum levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in European women.

      Gram, Inger Torhild; Norat, Teresa; Rinaldi, Sabina; Dossus, Laure; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Téhard, B; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Gils, C H van; Noord, P A H van; Peeters, Petra H M; et al. (2006-11-01)
      OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio (WHR) with serum levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and its binding protein (IGFBP)-3. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study on 2139 women participating in a case-control study on breast cancer and endogenous hormones. Data on lifestyle and reproductive factors were collected by means of questionnaires. Body height, weight, waist and hip circumferences were measured. Serum levels of IGF-I and insulin-like binding protein (IGFBP)-3 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Adjusted mean levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 across quintiles of BMI, waist circumference, and WHR were calculated by linear regression. Results were adjusted for potential confounders associated with IGF-I and IGFBP-3. RESULTS: Adjusted mean serum IGF-I values were lower in women with BMI<22.5 kg/m(2) or BMI>29.2 kg/m(2) compared to women with BMI within this range (P(heterogeneity)<0.0001, P(trend)=0.35). Insulin-like growth factor-I was not related to WHR after adjustment for BMI. IGF-binding protein-3 was linearly positively related to waist and WHR after mutual adjustment. The molar ratio IGF-I/IGFBP-3 had a non-linear relation with BMI and a linear inverse relationship with WHR (P (trend)=0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Our data confirm the nonlinear relationship of circulating IGF-I to total adiposity in women. Serum IGFBP-3 was positively related to central adiposity. These suggest that bioavailable IGF-I levels could be lower in obese compared to non-obese women and inversely related to central adiposity.
    • Body size and risk of colon and rectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

      Pischon, Tobias; Lahmann, Petra H; Boeing, Heiner; Friedenreich, Christine; Norat, Teresa; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjaer, Jytte; Overvad, Kim; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; et al. (2006-07-05)
      BACKGROUND: Body weight and body mass index (BMI) are positively related to risk of colon cancer in men, whereas weak or no associations exist in women. This discrepancy may be related to differences in fat distribution between sexes or to the use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in women. METHODS: We used multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards models to examine the association between anthropometric measures and risks of colon and rectal cancer among 368 277 men and women who were free of cancer at baseline from nine countries of the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: During 6.1 years of follow-up, we identified 984 and 586 patients with colon and rectal cancer, respectively. Body weight and BMI were statistically significantly associated with colon cancer risk in men (highest versus lowest quintile of BMI, relative risk [RR] = 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.12 to 2.15; P(trend) = .006) but not in women. In contrast, comparisons of the highest to the lowest quintile showed that several anthropometric measures, including waist circumference (men, RR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.93; P(trend) = .001; women, RR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.08 to 2.03; P(trend) = .008), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR; men, RR = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.06 to 2.15; P(trend) = .006; women, RR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.12 to 2.05; P(trend) = .002), and height (men, RR = 1.40, 95% CI = 0.99 to 1.98; P(trend) = .04; women, RR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.30 to 2.46; P(trend)<.001) were related to colon cancer risk in both sexes. The estimated absolute risk of developing colon cancer within 5 years was 203 and 131 cases per 100,000 men and 129 and 86 cases per 100,000 women in the highest and lowest quintiles of WHR, respectively. Upon further stratification, no association of waist circumference and WHR with risk of colon cancer was observed among postmenopausal women who used HRT. None of the anthropometric measures was statistically significantly related to rectal cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Waist circumference and WHR, indicators of abdominal obesity, were strongly associated with colon cancer risk in men and women in this population. The association of abdominal obesity with colon cancer risk may vary depending on HRT use in postmenopausal women; however, these findings require confirmation in future studies.
    • Body size and risk of renal cell carcinoma in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

      Pischon, Tobias; Lahmann, Petra H; Boeing, Heiner; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjaer, Jytte; Overvad, Kim; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Linseisen, Jakob; Becker, Nikolaus; Trichopoulou, Antonia; et al. (2006-02-01)
      Previous studies suggest that obesity is related to increased risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC); however, only a few studies report on measures of central vs. peripheral adiposity. We examined the association between anthropometric measures, including waist and hip circumference and RCC risk among 348,550 men and women free of cancer at baseline from 8 countries of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). During 6.0 years of follow-up we identified 287 incident cases of RCC. Relative risks were calculated using Cox regression, stratified by age and study center and adjusted for smoking status, education, alcohol consumption, physical activity, menopausal status, and hormone replacement therapy use. Among women, an increased risk of RCC was conferred by body weight (relative risk [RR] in highest vs. lowest quintile = 2.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.16-3.90; p-trend = 0.003), body mass index (BMI) (RR = 2.25; 95% CI = 1.14-4.44; p-trend = 0.009), and waist (RR = 1.67; 95% CI = 0.94-2.98; p-trend = 0.003) and hip circumference (RR = 2.30; 95% CI = 1.22-4.34; p-trend = 0.01); however, waist and hip circumference were no longer significant after controlling for body weight. Among men, hip circumference (RR = 0.44; 95% CI = 0.20-0.98; p-trend = 0.03) was related significantly to decreased RCC risk only after accounting for body weight. Height was not related significantly to RCC risk. Our findings suggest that obesity is related to increased risk of RCC irrespective of fat distribution among women, whereas low hip circumference is related to increased RCC risk among men. Our data give further credence to public health efforts aiming to reduce the prevalence of obesity to prevent RCC, in addition to other chronic diseases.
    • Bone markers and cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes patients.

      Zwakenberg, Sabine R; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W; Beulens, Joline W J (2018-03-23)
      Vascular calcifications are associated with a three- to fourfold increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and are highly prevalent in type 2 diabetes patients. Emerging evidence indicates that vascular calcification is a process of active bone formation regulated by stimulators and inhibitors of calcification. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate whether six bone markers are associated with CVD risk in patients with type 2 diabetes.
    • Bordetella pertussis pertactin knock-out strains reveal immunomodulatory properties of this virulence factor.

      Hovingh, Elise Sofie; Mariman, Rob; Solans, Luis; Hijdra, Daniëlle; Hamstra, Hendrik-Jan; Jongerius, Ilse; van Gent, Marjolein; Mooi, Frits; Locht, Camille; Pinelli, Elena (2018-03-21)
      Whooping cough, caused by Bordetella pertussis, has resurged and presents a global health burden worldwide. B. pertussis strains unable to produce the acellular pertussis vaccine component pertactin (Prn), have been emerging and in some countries represent up to 95% of recent clinical isolates. Knowledge on the effect that Prn deficiency has on infection and immunity to B. pertussis is crucial for the development of new strategies to control this disease. Here, we characterized the effect of Prn production by B. pertussis on human and murine dendritic cell (DC) maturation as well as in a murine model for pertussis infection. We incubated human monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) with multiple isogenic Prn knockout (Prn-KO) and corresponding parental B. pertussis strains constructed either in laboratory reference strains with a Tohama I background or in a recently circulating clinical isolate. Results indicate that, compared to the parental strains, Prn-KO strains induced an increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by moDCs. This pro-inflammatory phenotype was also observed upon stimulation of murine bone marrow-derived DCs. Moreover, RNA sequencing analysis of lungs from mice infected with B. pertussis Prn-KO revealed increased expression of genes involved in cell death. These in vitro and in vivo findings indicate that B. pertussis strains which do not produce Prn induce a stronger pro-inflammatory response and increased cell death upon infection, suggesting immunomodulatory properties for Prn.
    • Bordetella Pertussis virulence factors in the continuing evolution of whooping cough vaccines for improved performance.

      Dorji, Dorji; Mooi, Frits; Yantorno, Osvaldo; Deora, Rajendar; Graham, Ross M; Mukkur, Trilochan K (2018-02)
      Despite high vaccine coverage, whooping cough caused by Bordetella pertussis remains one of the most common vaccine-preventable diseases worldwide. Introduction of whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccines in the 1940s and acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines in 1990s reduced the mortality due to pertussis. Despite induction of both antibody and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses by aP and wP vaccines, there has been resurgence of pertussis in many countries in recent years. Possible reasons hypothesised for resurgence have ranged from incompliance with the recommended vaccination programmes with the currently used aP vaccine to infection with a resurged clinical isolates characterised by mutations in the virulence factors, resulting in antigenic divergence with vaccine strain, and increased production of pertussis toxin, resulting in dampening of immune responses. While use of these vaccines provide varying degrees of protection against whooping cough, protection against infection and transmission appears to be less effective, warranting continuation of efforts in the development of an improved pertussis vaccine formulations capable of achieving this objective. Major approaches currently under evaluation for the development of an improved pertussis vaccine include identification of novel biofilm-associated antigens for incorporation in current aP vaccine formulations, development of live attenuated vaccines and discovery of novel non-toxic adjuvants capable of inducing both antibody and CMI. In this review, the potential roles of different accredited virulence factors, including novel biofilm-associated antigens, of B. pertussis in the evolution, formulation and delivery of improved pertussis vaccines, with potential to block the transmission of whooping cough in the community, are discussed.
    • BOREAS - A new MAX-DOAS profile retrieval algorithm for aerosols and trace gases.

      Bosch, T; Rozanov, V; Richter, A; Peters, E; Rozanov, A; Witrrock, F; Merlaud, A; van Berkhout, S (2019-01-14)
    • Borrelia miyamotoi Disease in an Immunocompetent Patient, Western Europe

      Hoornstra, Dieuwertje; Koetsveld, Joris; Sprong, Hein; Platonov, Alexander E.; Hovius, Joppe W. (2018-09)
    • Borrelia miyamotoi infection leads to cross-reactive antibodies to the C6 peptide in mice and men.

      Koetsveld, J; Platonov, A E; Kuleshov, K; Wagemakers, A; Hoornstra, D; Ang, W; Szekeres, S; van Duijvendijk, G L A; Fikrig, E; Embers, M E; et al. (2019-08-09)
    • Brain stem and cerebellar hyperintense lesions in migraine.

      Kruit, Mark C; Launer, Lenore J; Ferrari, Michel D; Buchem, Mark A van (2006-04-01)
      BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Migraineurs are at increased risk of cerebellar infarcts and supratentorial white matter lesions. The prevalence, frequency, and distribution of infratentorial hyperintense lesions in migraine are unknown. METHODS: Migraineurs with aura (n=161), without aura (n=134), and controls (n=140) from a population-based sample of adults (30 to 60 years of age) were evaluated with MRI. RESULTS: Infratentorial hyperintensities were identified in 13 of 295 (4.4%) migraineurs and in 1 of 140 (0.7%) controls (P=0.04). Twelve cases had hyperintensities, mostly bilaterally, in the dorsal basis pontis. Those with infratentorial hyperintensities also had supratentorial white matter lesions more often. CONCLUSIONS: We found an increased prevalence of infratentorial (mostly pontine) hyperintensities in migraineurs from the general population. This extends the knowledge about vulnerable brain regions and type of lesions in migraine brains. A hemodynamic ischemic pathogenesis is likely, but further research is needed.
    • Breaking Down Uncertain Risks for Risk Communication: A Conceptual Review of the Environmental Health Literature

      Jansen, Tom; Claassen, Liesbeth; van Poll, Ric; van Kamp, Irene; Timmermans, Daniëlle R. M. (2018-03)
    • Breast milk fatty acids and allergic disease in preschool children: the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy birth cohort study.

      Wijga, Alet H; Houwelingen, Adriana C van; Kerkhof, Marjan; Tabak, Cora; Jongste, Johan C de; Gerritsen, Jorrit; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Brunekreef, Bert; Smit, Henriëtte A (2006-02-01)
      BACKGROUND: Better understanding of the association between early life lipid intakes and the development of allergic diseases is needed. OBJECTIVE: We prospectively studied breast milk content of n-6, n-3, and trans fatty acids in relation to allergic symptoms at the ages of 1 and 4 years. METHODS: Fatty acid content was determined in breast milk samples of 265 (158 allergic and 107 nonallergic) mothers of children participating in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy study. Outcome variables studied were parental reported eczema at age 1 year, eczema at age 4 years, asthma at age 4 years, and, in a subgroup of 133 children, sensitization at age 4 years. RESULTS: In children of mothers with allergy, breast milk n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and the ratio between n-3 and n-6 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids were inversely associated with asthma and with persistent symptoms (eczema at age 1 year and eczema at age 4 years and/or asthma at age 4 years), but no associations between breast milk fatty acids and sensitization were observed. In children of mothers with allergy, also trans fatty acids tended to be inversely associated with allergic symptoms. In children of mothers without allergy, no associations between breast milk fatty acids and allergic symptoms were observed, but alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) was positively associated with sensitization. CONCLUSION: In susceptible infants, the risk to develop allergic symptoms, but not the risk of sensitization, was modified by intake of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids through breast milk.
    • Breastfeeding and cardiometabolic markers at age 12: a population-based birth cohort study.

      Pluymen, L P M; Wijga, A H; Gehring, U; Koppelman, G H; Smit, H A; van Rossem, L (2019-03-18)
      There is growing evidence for a protective effect of breastfeeding against overweight and diabetes. It is less clear though, whether breastfed infants also have a more favorable cardiometabolic profile in childhood. We investigated whether children who were breastfed in infancy had more favorable cardiometabolic markers at 12 years of age than children who were never breastfed and received formula milk instead, and whether associations depended on the duration of breastfeeding. In 1509 participants of the population-based PIAMA birth cohort study, cardiometabolic markers were measured at 12 years of age. Duration of breastfeeding in weeks was assessed through parental questionnaires at 3 months and 1 year of age. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to investigate associations of breastfeeding (any vs. never breastfeeding and duration of breastfeeding in categories <3 months, 3 to <6 months, and ≥6 months breastfeeding vs. never breastfeeding) with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, in Z-scores adjusted for age, sex, and height), total-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/HDLC), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, in mmol/mol), body mass index (BMI, in Z-scores adjusted for age and sex) and waist circumference (WC, in cm). Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the association of breastfeeding with odds of being overweight. 1288 of 1509 children (85.3%) received any breastmilk in infancy. Breastfed children had a lower SBP Z-score (-0.21 SD (≈ -2.29 mmHg), 95% CI -0.37, -0.06), a lower DBP Z-score (-0.10 SD (≈ -1.19 mmHg), 95% CI -0.20, -0.00), a smaller WC (-1.12 cm, 95% CI -2.20; -0.04), and lower odds of being overweight (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.38, 0.97) than never breastfed children. These associations were not different between children with shorter and longer duration of breastfeeding. No statistically significant differences in TC/HDLC, HbA1c, and BMI were observed between breastfed and never breastfed children.
    • Bridging communities in the field of nanomedicine.

      Halamoda-Kenzaoui, Blanka; Baconnier, Simon; Bastogne, Thierry; Bazile, Didier; Boisseau, Patrick; Borchard, Gerrit; Borgos, Sven Even; Calzolai, Luigi; Cederbrant, Karin; Di Felice, Gabriella; et al. (2019-08-01)
    • Bronopsporing bij een langdurige internationale uitbraak van Salmonella Enteritidis

      Broek I van den; Broek I van den; Dam-Deisz WDC; Voort M van der; Nijs R de; Broek I van den; Broek I van den; Kuiling S; Kerkhof JHCT van den; Leblanc JMJ; et al. (2017-06-19)
    • Brucella Pinnipedialis in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) and harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) in the Netherlands

      Kroese, Michiel V; Beckers, Lisa; Bisselink, Yvette J W M; Brasseur, Sophie; van Tulden, Peter W; Koene, Miriam G J; Roest, Hendrik I J; Ruuls, Robin C; Backer, Jantien A; IJzer, Jooske; et al. (2018-04-26)
      Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease with terrestrial or marine wildlife animals as potential reservoirs for the disease in livestock and human populations. The primary aim of this study was to assess the presence of Brucella pinnipedialis in marine mammals living along the Dutch coast and to observe a possible correlation between the presence of B. pinnipedialis and accompanying pathology found in infected animals. The overall prevalence of Brucella spp. antibodies in sera from healthy wild grey seals ( Halichoerus grypus; n=11) and harbor seals ( Phoca vitulina; n=40), collected between 2007 and 2013 ranged from 25% to 43%. Additionally, tissue samples of harbor seals collected along the Dutch shores between 2009 and 2012, were tested for the presence of Brucella spp. In total, 77% (30/39) seals were found to be positive for Brucella by IS 711 real-time PCR in one or more tissue samples, including pulmonary nematodes. Viable Brucella was cultured from 40% (12/30) real-time PCR-positive seals, and was isolated from liver, lung, pulmonary lymph node, pulmonary nematode, or spleen, but not from any PCR-negative seals. Tissue samples from lung and pulmonary lymph nodes were the main source of viable Brucella bacteria. All isolates were typed as B. pinnipedialis by multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis-16 clustering and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry, and of sequence type ST25 by multilocus sequence typing analysis. No correlation was observed between Brucella infection and pathology. This report displays the isolation and identification of B. pinnipedialis in marine mammals in the Dutch part of the Atlantic Ocean.
    • Building a developmental toxicity ontology.

      Baker, Nancy; Boobis, Alan; Burgoon, Lyle; Carney, Edward; Currie, Richard; Fritsche, Ellen; Knudsen, Thomas; Laffont, Madeleine; Piersma, Aldert H; Poole, Alan; et al. (2018-01-31)
      As more information is generated about modes of action for developmental toxicity and more data are generated using high-throughput and high-content technologies, it is becoming necessary to organize that information. This report discussed the need for a systematic representation of knowledge about developmental toxicity (i.e., an ontology) and proposes a method to build one based on knowledge of developmental biology and mode of action/ adverse outcome pathways in developmental toxicity.
    • Burden of surgical site infections in the Netherlands: cost analyses and disability-adjusted life years.

      Koek, M B G; van der Kooi, T I I; Stigter, F C A; de Boer, P T; de Gier, B; Hopmans, T E M; de Greeff, S C (2019-07-19)