• Prediction of human active mobility in rural areas: development and validity tests of three different approaches.

      Klous, Gijs; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E E; Coutinho, Roel A; Heederik, Dick J J; Huss, Anke (2019-11-26)
      Estimated and measured hours/week spent on active mobility had low correspondence, even the best predicting estimation method based on self-reported data, resulted in a R2 of 0.09 and Cohen's kappa of 0.07. A visual check indicated that, although predicted routes to work appeared to match GPS measured tracks, only a small proportion of active mobility was captured in this way, thus resulting in a low validity of overall predicted active mobility.
    • Prediction of individual life-years gained without cardiovascular events from lipid, blood pressure, glucose, and aspirin treatment based on data of more than 500 000 patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

      Berkelmans, Gijs F N; Gudbjörnsdottir, Soffia; Visseren, Frank L J; Wild, Sarah H; Franzen, Stefan; Chalmers, John; Davis, Barry R; Poulter, Neil R; Spijkerman, Annemieke M; Woodward, Mark; et al. (2019-01-09)
      Although group-level effectiveness of lipid, blood pressure, glucose, and aspirin treatment for prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been proven by trials, important differences in absolute effectiveness exist between individuals. We aim to develop and validate a prediction tool for individualizing lifelong CVD prevention in people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) predicting life-years gained without myocardial infarction or stroke. We developed and validated the Diabetes Lifetime-perspective prediction (DIAL) model, consisting of two complementary competing risk adjusted Cox proportional hazards functions using data from people with T2DM registered in the Swedish National Diabetes Registry (n = 389 366). Competing outcomes were (i) CVD events (vascular mortality, myocardial infarction, or stroke) and (ii) non-vascular mortality. Predictors were age, sex, smoking, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, haemoglobin A1c, estimated glomerular filtration rate, non- high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, albuminuria, T2DM duration, insulin treatment, and history of CVD. External validation was performed using data from the ADVANCE, ACCORD, ASCOT and ALLHAT-LLT-trials, the SMART and EPIC-NL cohorts, and the Scottish diabetes register (total n = 197 785). Predicted and observed CVD-free survival showed good agreement in all validation sets. C-statistics for prediction of CVD were 0.83 (95% confidence interval: 0.83-0.84) and 0.64-0.65 for internal and external validation, respectively. We provide an interactive calculator at www.U-Prevent.com that combines model predictions with relative treatment effects from trials to predict individual benefit from preventive treatment. Cardiovascular disease-free life expectancy and effects of lifelong prevention in terms of CVD-free life-years gained can be estimated for people with T2DM using readily available clinical characteristics. Predictions of individual-level treatment effects facilitate translation of trial results to individual patients.
    • Prediction of individualized lifetime benefit from cholesterol lowering, blood pressure lowering, antithrombotic therapy, and smoking cessation in apparently healthy people.

      Jaspers, Nicole E M; Blaha, Michael J; Matsushita, Kunihiro; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Geisel, Marie H; Lehmann, Nils; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; et al. (2019-05-18)
    • Prediction of mortality and major cardiovascular complications in type 2 diabetes: external validation of UKPDS outcomes model version 2 in two European observational cohorts.

      Pagano, Eva; Konings, Stefan Ra; Di Cuonzo, Daniela; Rosato, Rosalba; Bruno, Graziella; van der Heijden, Amber A; Beulens, Joline; Slieker, Roderick; Leal, Jose; Feenstra, Talitha L (2020-12-29)
    • Prediction of octanol-air partition coefficients for PCBs at different ambient temperatures based on the solvation free energy and the dimer ratio.

      Li, Wanran; Ding, Guanghui; Gao, Hong; Zhuang, Yuting; Gu, Xiaoyue; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M (2019-10-31)
      Temperature-dependent octanol-air partition coefficients (KOA) are of great importance in assessing the environmental behavior and fate of persistent organic pollutants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Due to the tremendous amounts of time, effort and cost needed for the experimental determination of KOA, it is desirable to develop a rapid and precise predictive method to estimate KOA just based on molecular structure. In the present study, a predictive model for log KOA of PCBs at ambient temperatures was developed based on the thermodynamic relationship between KOA and the solvation free energy from air to octanol (ΔGOA). For the calculation of ΔGOA of PCBs, the optimal combination of theoretical method and basis-set was identified to be HF/MIDI!6D for both geometry optimization and energy calculation. Dimer formation could affect the partition behavior and promote the apparent KOA values of PCBs. After taking the effect of dimer formation into account, the goodness-of-fit, predictive ability, and robustness of the predictive model were significantly improved. Apparent log KOA values of PCBs at different ambient temperatures ranging from 283.15 to 303.15 K were predicted. Compared with other reported models, the model developed in the present study had not only comparable goodness-of-fit and predictive ability, but also a universal application domain and the relative independency of experimental data. Therefore, the solvation free energy method could be a promising method for the prediction of KOA.
    • Prediction of VLCAD deficiency phenotype by a metabolic fingerprint in newborn screening bloodspots.

      Knottnerus, Suzan J G; Pras-Raves, Mia L; van der Ham, Maria; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Houtkooper, Riekelt H; Schielen, Peter C J I; Visser, Gepke; Wijburg, Frits A; de Sain-van der Velden, Monique G M (2020-06-01)
    • Predictors of Frailty and Vitality in Older Adults Aged 75 years and Over: Results from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam.

      de Breij, Sascha; van Hout, Hein P J; De Bruin, Simone R; Schuster, Noah A; Deeg, Dorly J H; Huisman, Martijn; Hoogendijk, Emiel O (2021-01-11)
    • Predictors of hepatitis B vaccination completion among people who use drugs participating in a national program of targeted vaccination.

      Raven, Stijn; Urbanus, Anouk; de Gee, Anouk; Hoebe, Christian; van Steenbergen, Jim (2018)
      Targeted vaccination strategies are necessary to prevent people who use drugs (PWUD) becoming infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). The aims of this study were to provide an overview of the activities for PWUD in a decentralised vaccination program in the Netherlands and to explore the determinants associated with completing a standard hepatitis B vaccination series.
    • Predictors of stunting with particular focus on complementary feeding practices: A cross-sectional study in the northern province of Rwanda.

      Uwiringiyimana, Vestine; Ocké, Marga C; Amer, Sherif; Veldkamp, Antonie (2019-04-01)
      The aim of this study was to review the factors associated with stunting in the northern province of Rwanda by assessing anthropometric status, dietary intake, and overall complementary feeding practices. This was a cross-sectional study with 138 children 5 to 30 mo of age. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on sociodemographic characteristics of each mother and child and breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices. Anthropometric status was assessed using height-for-age z-scores for children and body mass index for caregivers. Dietary intakes were estimated using a 24-h recall. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were performed to study the predictors of height-for-age z scores and stunting. There was a 42% stunting prevalence. Prevalence of continued breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding were 92% and 50%, respectively. Most children (62%) fell into the low dietary diversity score group. The nutrient intake from complementary foods was below recommendations. The odds of stunting were higher in children >12 mo of age (odds ratio [OR], 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.29). Exclusive breastfeeding (OR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.10-0.48) and deworming tablet use in the previous 6 mo (OR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.07-0.80) decreased significantly the odds of stunting in children. Also, the body mass index of the caretaker (β = 0.08 kg/m Interventions focusing on optimal nutrition during the complementary feeding stage, exclusive breastfeeding, and the use of deworming tablets have the potential to substantially reduce stunting in children in the northern province of Rwanda.
    • A Predominant Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Cluster of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates among Asylum Seekers in the Netherlands and Denmark, Deciphered by Whole-Genome Sequencing.

      Jajou, Rana; de Neeling, Albert; Rasmussen, Erik Michael; Norman, Anders; Mulder, Arnout; van Hunen, Rianne; de Vries, Gerard; Haddad, Walid; Anthony, Richard; Lillebaek, Troels; et al. (2018-02)
      In many countries,Mycobacterium tuberculosisisolates are routinely subjected to variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing to investigateM. tuberculosistransmission. Unexpectedly, cross-border clusters were identified among African refugees in the Netherlands and Denmark, although transmission in those countries was unlikely. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was applied to analyze transmission in depth and to assess the precision of VNTR typing. WGS was applied to 40M. tuberculosisisolates from refugees in the Netherlands and Denmark (most of whom were from the Horn of Africa) that shared the exact same VNTR profile. Cluster investigations were undertaken to identify in-country epidemiological links. Combining WGS results for the isolates (all members of the central Asian strain [CAS]/Delhi genotype), from both European countries, an average genetic distance of 80 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (maximum, 153 SNPs) was observed. The few pairs of isolates with confirmed epidemiological links, except for one pair, had a maximum distance of 12 SNPs. WGS divided this refugee cluster into several subclusters of patients from the same country of origin. Although theM. tuberculosiscases, mainly originating from African countries, shared the exact same VNTR profile, most were clearly distinguished by WGS. The average genetic distance in this specific VNTR cluster was 2 times greater than that in other VNTR clusters. Thus, identical VNTR profiles did not represent recent directM. tuberculosistransmission for this group of patients. It appears that either these strains from Africa are extremely conserved genetically or there is ongoing transmission of this genotype among refugees on their long migration routes from Africa to Europe.
    • Preexposure prophylaxis for men who have sex with men in the Netherlands: impact on HIV and Neisseria gonorrhoeae transmission and cost-effectiveness.

      Reitsema, Maarten; Hoek, Albert Jan Van; van der Loeff, Maarten Schim; Hoornenborg, Elske; van Sighem, Ard; Wallinga, Jacco; van Benthem, Birgit; Xiridou, Maria (2020-03-15)
    • Preferential differences in vaccination decision-making for oneself or one's child in The Netherlands: a discrete choice experiment.

      Hoogink, Joram; Verelst, Frederik; Kessels, Roselinde; van Hoek, Albert Jan; Timen, Aura; Willem, Lander; Beutels, Philippe; Wallinga, Jacco; de Wit, G Ardine (2020-06-01)
    • Preparation of irritant polymer samples for an in vitro round robin study.

      Coleman, Kelly P; Grailer, Thomas P; McNamara, Lori R; Rollins, Beau L; Christiano, Nicholas J; Kandárová, Helena; De Jong, Wim H (2018-02-02)
      A round robin study using reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) tissues was conducted to test medical device polymer extracts for skin irritation potential. Test samples were four irritant and three non-irritant medical device polymers. Five of these polymer samples were developed and two were obtained commercially. The three non-irritant samples were comprised of 100% 80A polyurethane, one-part silicone, and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The polyurethane samples were made using a hot-melt process, while the silicone samples were created by mixing and casting. The PVC samples were commercially produced sheets. The four irritant samples were comprised of one-part silicone and 25% heptanoic acid (HA), two-part silicone and 15% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), PVC and 4% Genapol® X-100, and PVC and 5.8% Genapol® X-080. The HA, SDS, and Genapol® X-100 samples were produced using the mixing and casting method, while the Genapol® X-080 sheet samples were obtained commercially. During development, irritant polymer samples were extracted using polar and non-polar solvents that were subsequently analyzed chemically. Samples with sufficient levels of extracted irritants were tested on RhE tissues to confirm their irritation potential. Polymers that passed this screening test were used in the round robin study described elsewhere in this special edition.
    • Preparedness and the importance of meeting the needs of healthcare workers: a qualitative study on Ebola.

      Belfroid, E; van Steenbergen, J; Timen, A; Ellerbroek, P; Huis, A; Hulscher, M (2017-07-06)
      Healthcare workers (HCWs) face specific challenges in infectious disease outbreaks, which provide unusual, new events with exposure risk. The fear of infection or new, unknown tasks in an unfamiliar setting, for example, may complicate outbreak management.
    • Preschool teachers' perspective on how high noise levels at preschool affect children's behavior.

      Persson Waye, Kerstin; Fredriksson, Sofie; Hussain-Alkhateeb, Laith; Gustafsson, Johanna; van Kamp, Irene (2019-01-01)
      Early-age exposure to noise may have long-term health implications of which we have little knowledge of today. Age-specific hearing, learning inadequate coping strategies, and alterations in biological stress regulatory responses could play a role in the long-term health impacts. In Sweden about half a million children in the age between 1-5 years attend preschool. The noise exposure at preschools is intermittent and unpredictable and levels reach up to 84 dB LAeq (time indoors) with maximum levels of 118 dB LAF, mostly due to child activity. To increase the overall understanding of the possible implications of preschool noise environments for children, this paper describes children's behavioral and emotional reactions to and coping with their everyday sound environment from a teachers perspective. A postal questionnaire study performed in 2013-2014 with answers from 3,986 preschool teachers provided the data. Content analysis was combined with quantitative analysis. Eighty-two percent of the personnel considered that children's behavior was affected rather or very much by preschool noise. The most prevalent behaviors were categorized into: be heard, be distracted, show negative internal emotions, crowd, avoid, withdraw, be exhausted, and learning. The quantitative analyses confirmed an association between the perceived loudness and noise annoyance at preschool and affirmative reporting on noise affecting the children´s behavior. Age of the personnel, with the youngest age group reporting noise related behavior less often, and age distribution of the class, with 1-5 years old seeming less affected by noise, were also indicated, while pedagogic orientation was not a significant factor. Future studies should address the long-term health effects of these behaviors.
    • Presence of Roe Deer Affects the Occurrence of Ecotypes in Questing in Different Habitat Types of Central Europe.

      Hamšíková, Zuzana; Silaghi, Cornelia; Takumi, Katsuhisa; Rudolf, Ivo; Gunár, Kristyna; Sprong, Hein; Kazimírová, Mária (2019-11-27)
      The way in which European genetic variants of Anaplasma phagocytophilum circulate in their natural foci and which variants cause disease in humans or livestock remains thus far unclear. Red deer and roe deer are suggested to be reservoirs for some European A. phagocytophilum strains, and Ixodes ricinus is their principal vector. Based on groEL gene sequences, five A. phagocytophilum ecotypes have been identified. Ecotype I is associated with the broadest host range, including strains that cause disease in domestic animals and humans. Ecotype II is associated with roe deer and does not include zoonotic strains. In the present study, questing I. ricinus were collected in urban, pasture, and natural habitats in the Czech Republic, Germany, and Slovakia. A fragment of the msp2 gene of A. phagocytophilum was amplified by real-time PCR in DNA isolated from ticks. Positive samples were further analyzed by nested PCRs targeting fragments of the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, followed by sequencing. Samples were stratified according to the presence/absence of roe deer at the sampling sites. Geographic origin, habitat, and tick stage were also considered. The probability that A. phagocytophilum is a particular ecotype was estimated by a generalized linear model. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was identified by genetic typing in 274 I. ricinus ticks. The majority belonged to ecotype I (63.9%), 28.5% were ecotype II, and both ecotypes were identified in 7.7% of ticks. Ecotype II was more frequently identified in ticks originating from a site with presence of roe deer, whereas ecotype I was more frequent in adult ticks than in nymphs. Models taking into account the country-specific, site-specific, and habitat-specific aspects did not improve the goodness of the fit. Thus, roe deer presence in a certain site and the tick developmental stage are suggested to be the two factors consistently influencing the occurrence of a particular A. phagocytophilum ecotype in a positive I. ricinus tick.
    • Prevalence and characterization of heterogeneous VNTR clusters comprising drug susceptible and/or variable resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates in the Netherlands from 2004-2016.

      Roof, Inge; Jajou, Rana; Kamst, Miranda; Mulder, Arnout; de Neeling, Albert; van Hunen, Rianne; van der Hoek, Wim; van Soolingen, Dick (2018-08-29)
      Introduction: The variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) typing method is used to study tuberculosis (TB) transmission. Clustering of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates with identical VNTR patterns is assumed to reflect recent transmission. Hence, clusters are thought to be homogeneous regarding antibiotic resistance. In practice, however, also heterogeneous clusters are identified. This study investigates the prevalence and characteristics of heterogeneous VNTR clusters and assesses whether isolates in these clusters remain clustered when subjected to whole genome sequencing (WGS).Methods: In the period 2004-2016, 9,072 isolates were included. Demographic and epidemiological linkage data were obtained from the Netherlands Tuberculosis Register. VNTR clusters were defined as homogeneous when isolates shared identical resistance profiles, or as heterogeneous if both susceptible and (varying) resistant isolates were found. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with heterogeneous clustering. Isolates from 2016 were subjected to WGS and a genetic distance of 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was used as cut-off for WGS clustering.Results: In total, 4,661/9,072 (51%) isolates were clustered in 985 different VNTR clusters, of which 217 (22%) were heterogeneous. Patient characteristics associated with heterogeneous clustering were non-Dutch ethnicity (OR 1.46 [1.22-1.75]), asylum seeker (OR 1.51 [1.24-1.85]), extra pulmonary TB (OR 1.26 [1.09-1.46]), previous TB diagnosis (OR 1.38 [1.04-1.82]), and non-contact of a TB patient (OR 1.35 [1.08-1.69]). With WGS, 34% of heterogeneous and 78% of homogeneous isolates from 2016 remained clustered.Conclusion: Heterogeneous VNTR clusters are common, but seem to be explained by a substantial degree of false clustering by VNTR when compared to WGS.
    • Prevalence and correlates of domain-specific sedentary time of adults in the Netherlands: findings from the 2006 Dutch time use survey.

      Loyen, Anne; Chau, Josephine Y; Jelsma, Judith G M; van Nassau, Femke; van der Ploeg, Hidde P (2019-06-03)