• Relationship between Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) antibody serology and time spent outdoors.

      Klous, Gijs; Smit, Lidwien Am; van der Hoek, Wim; Kretzschmar, Mirjam Ee; Vellema, Piet; Coutinho, Roel A; Heederik, Dick Jj; Huss, Anke (2020-04-21)
    • The relationship between the presence of antibodies and direct detection of Toxoplasma gondii in slaughtered calves and cattle in four European countries.

      Opsteegh, M; Spano, F; Aubert, D; Balea, A; Burrells, A; Cherchi, S; Cornelissen, J B W J; Dam-Deisz, C; Guitian, J; Györke, A; et al. (2019-06-01)
    • Relative contributions of a major international airport activities and other urban sources to the particle number concentrations (PNCs) at a nearby monitoring site.

      Pirhadi, Milad; Mousavi, Amirhosein; Sowlat, Mohammad H; Janssen, Nicole A H; Cassee, Flemming R; Sioutas, Constantinos (2020-05-01)
      In this study, the positive matrix factorization (PMF) source apportionment model was employed to quantify the contributions of airport activities to particle number concentrations (PNCs) at Amsterdam Schiphol. Time-resolved particle number size distributions in parallel with the concentrations of auxiliary variables, including gaseous pollutants (NOx and CO), black carbon, PM2.5 mass, and number of arrivals/departures were measured for 32 sampling days over a 6-month period near Schiphol airport to be used in the model. PMF results revealed that airport activities, cumulatively, accounted for around 79.3% of PNCs and our model segregated them into three major groups: (i) aircraft departures, (ii) aircraft arrivals, and (iii) ground service equipment (GSE) (with some contributions of local road traffic, mostly from airport parking lots). Aircraft departures and aircraft arrivals showed mode diameters <20 nm and contributed, respectively, to 46.1% and 26.7% of PNCs. The factor GSE/local road traffic, with a mode diameter of around 60-80 nm, accounted for 6.5% of the PNCs. Road traffic related mainly to the surrounding freeways was characterized with a mode diameter of 30-40 nm; this factor contributed to 18.0% of PNCs although its absolute PNCs was comparable with that of areas heavily impacted by traffic emissions. Lastly, urban background with a mode diameter at 150-225 nm, had a minimal contribution (2.7%) to PNCs while dominating the particle volume/mass concentrations with a contribution of 58.2%. These findings illustrate the dominant role of the airport activities in ambient PNCs in the surrounding areas. More importantly, the quantification of the contributions of different airport activities to PNCs is a useful tool to better control and limit the increased PNCs near the airports that could adversely impact the health of the adjacent urban communities.
    • The relative invasive disease potential of Streptococcus pneumoniae among children after PCV introduction: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

      Balsells, Evelyn; Dagan, Ron; Yildirim, Inci; Gounder, Prabhu P; Steens, Anneke; Muñoz-Almagro, Carmen; Mameli, Chiara; Kandasamy, Rama; Lavi, Noga Givon; Daprai, Laura; et al. (2018-06-29)
      Burden of pneumococcal disease depends on the prevalence and invasive disease potential of serotypes. We aimed to estimate the invasive disease potential of serotypes in children under 5 years of age by combining data from different settings with routine immunisation with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV).
    • Relevance of Transcriptomics for Mode of Action Assessment.

      Luijten, Mirjam; Wackers, Paul F K; Rorije, Emiel; Pennings, Jeroen L A; Heusinkveld, Harm J (2020-12-30)
      Recently, we reported an in vitro toxicogenomics comparison approach to categorize chemical substances according to similarities in their proposed toxicological modes of action. Use of such an approach for regulatory purposes requires, among others, insight into the extent of biological concordance between in vitro and in vivo findings. To that end, we applied the comparison approach to transcriptomics data from the Open TG-GATEs database for 137 substances with diverging modes of action and evaluated the outcomes obtained for rat primary hepatocytes and for rat liver. The results showed that a relatively small number of matches observed in vitro were also observed in vivo, whereas quite a large number of matches between substances were found to be relevant solely in vivo or in vitro. The latter could not be explained by physicochemical properties, leading to insufficient bioavailability or poor water solubility. Nevertheless, pathway analyses indicated that for relevant matches the mechanisms perturbed in vitro are consistent with those perturbed in vivo. These findings support the utility of the comparison approach as tool in mechanism-based risk assessment.
    • Remarkable spatial variation in the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii after a large Q fever epidemic.

      Pijnacker, Roan; Reimerink, Johan; Smit, Lidwien A M; van Gageldonk-Lafeber, Arianne B; Zock, Jan-Paul; Borlée, Floor; Yzermans, Joris; Heederik, Dick J J; Maassen, Catharina B M; van der Hoek, Wim (2017)
      Prior to the 2007-2010 Q fever epidemic in the Netherlands, the seroprevalence of antibodies against Coxiella burnetii in the general population was 1.5%, which is low compared to other countries. We aimed to determine the seroprevalence after the Q fever epidemic among people living in the affected area, compare the seroprevalence with the incidence of Q fever notifications during the 2007-2010 Q fever epidemic, and to identify farm exposures associated with having antibodies against C. burnetii.
    • Remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil by biodegradable chelator-induced washing: Efficiencies and mechanisms.

      Wang, Guiyin; Pan, Xiaomei; Zhang, Shirong; Zhong, Qinmei; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Xiaohong; Wu, Jun; Vijver, Martina G; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M (2020-04-19)
      Biodegradable chelators (BCs) are promising substitutes for conventional washing agents in the remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil with strong complexing ability and less cost. However, great challenges for the applications of BC-assisted washing still exist, such as the assessment of the factor affecting the efficiency of metal removal and the unclear of the metal removal mechanism. Batch washing was therefore explored to evaluate the potential for four BCs for removing Cd, Pb, and Zn from polluted soils. The soil spectroscopic characteristics before and after washing were also investigated. The results demonstrated that iminodisuccinic acid (ISA) and glutamate-N, N-diacetic acid (GLDA) were an appealing alternative to commonly used non-biodegradable ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, but glucomonocarbonic acid (GCA) and polyaspartic acid (PASP) were less efficient. Optimal parameters of BCs were determined to be a concentration of 50 mmol L-1, a pH of 5.0, a contact time of 120 min, and a solid/liquid ratio of 1:5, considering metal removal efficiencies and the suitable cost. A single removal washing could be up to 52.39% of Cd, 71.79% of Pb, and 34.13% of Zn from mine soil, and 98.28% of Cd, 91.10% of Pb, and 90.91% of Zn from polluted farmland soil. After washing, the intensity of heavy metal binding to soil colloids increased while the metal mobility reduced because of weakly bound fractions removed by BCs. The BCs-induced soil washing revealed that the possible mechanisms of metal removal included the acid dissolution, ion exchange, and surface complexation. Our findings highlight the potential application of especially ISA and GLDA as efficient washing agents to remove potentially toxic elements from contaminated soils.
    • Repeat Chlamydia trachomatis testing among heterosexual STI outpatient clinic visitors in the Netherlands: a longitudinal study.

      Visser, Maartje; van Aar, Fleur; Koedijk, Femke D H; Kampman, Carolina J G; Heijne, Janneke C M (2017-12-20)
      Chlamydia infections are common in both men and women, are often asymptomatic and can cause serious complications. Repeat testing in high-risk groups is therefore indicated. In the Netherlands, guidelines on repeat chlamydia testing differ between testing facilities, and knowledge on repeat testing behaviour is limited. Here, we analyse the current repeat testing behaviour of heterosexual STI clinic visitors, and aim to identify groups for which repeat testing advice could be advantageous.
    • Repeated gestational exposure to diesel engine exhaust affects the fetal olfactory system and alters olfactory-based behavior in rabbit offspring.

      Bernal-Meléndez, Estefanía; Lacroix, Marie-Christine; Bouillaud, Pascaline; Callebert, Jacques; Olivier, Benoit; Persuy, Marie-Annick; Durieux, Didier; Rousseau-Ralliard, Delphine; Aioun, Josiane; Cassee, Flemming; et al. (2019-01-17)
      Airborne pollution, especially from diesel exhaust (DE), is known to have a negative effect on the central nervous system in exposed human populations. However, the consequences of gestational exposure to DE on the fetal brain remain poorly explored, with various effects depending on the conditions of exposure, as well as little information on early developmental stages. We investigated the short-term effects of indirect DE exposure throughout gestation on the developing brain using a rabbit model. We analyzed fetal olfactory tissues at the end of gestation and tested behaviors relevant to pups' survival at birth. Pregnant dams were exposed by nose-only inhalation to either clean air or DE with a content of particles (DEP) adjusted to 1 mg/m At GD28, nano-sized particles were observed in cilia and cytoplasm of the olfactory sensory neurons in the olfactory mucosa and in the cytoplasm of periglomerular cells in the olfactory bulbs of exposed fetuses. Moreover, cellular and axonal hypertrophies were observed throughout olfactory tissues. Concomitantly, fetal serotoninergic and dopaminergic systems were affected in the olfactory bulbs. Moreover, the neuromodulatory homeostasis was disturbed in a sex-dependent manner in olfactory tissues. At birth, the olfactory sensitivity to 2MB2 was reduced in exposed PND2 pups. Gestational exposure to DE alters olfactory tissues and affects monoaminergic neurotransmission in fetuses' olfactory bulbs, resulting in an alteration of olfactory-based behaviors at birth. Considering the anatomical and functional continuum between the olfactory system and other brain structures, and due to the importance of monoamine neurotransmission in the plasticity of neural circuits, such alterations could participate to disturbances in higher integrative structures, with possible long-term neurobehavioral consequences.
    • Repeated seasonal influenza vaccination among elderly in Europe: Effects on laboratory confirmed hospitalised influenza.

      Rondy, Marc; Launay, Odile; Castilla, Jesus; Costanzo, Simona; Puig-Barberà, Joan; Gefenaite, Giedre; Larrauri, Amparo; Rizzo, Caterina; Pitigoi, Daniela; Syrjänen, Ritva K; et al. (2017-08-03)
      In Europe, annual influenza vaccination is recommended to elderly. From 2011 to 2014 and in 2015-16, we conducted a multicentre test negative case control study in hospitals of 11 European countries to measure influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) against laboratory confirmed hospitalised influenza among people aged ≥65years. We pooled four seasons data to measure IVE by past exposures to influenza vaccination. We swabbed patients admitted for clinical conditions related to influenza with onset of severe acute respiratory infection ≤7days before admission. Cases were patients RT-PCR positive for influenza virus and controls those negative for any influenza virus. We documented seasonal vaccination status for the current season and the two previous seasons. We recruited 5295 patients over the four seasons, including 465A(H1N1)pdm09, 642A(H3N2), 278 B case-patients and 3910 controls. Among patients unvaccinated in both previous two seasons, current seasonal IVE (pooled across seasons) was 30% (95%CI: -35 to 64), 8% (95%CI: -94 to 56) and 33% (95%CI: -43 to 68) against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2) and B respectively. Among patients vaccinated in both previous seasons, current seasonal IVE (pooled across seasons) was -1% (95%CI: -80 to 43), 37% (95%CI: 7-57) and 43% (95%CI: 1-68) against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2) and B respectively. Our results suggest that, regardless of patients' recent vaccination history, current seasonal vaccine conferred some protection to vaccinated patients against hospitalisation with influenza A(H3N2) and B. Vaccination of patients already vaccinated in both the past two seasons did not seem to be effective against A(H1N1)pdm09. To better understand the effect of repeated vaccination, engaging in large cohort studies documenting exposures to vaccine and natural infection is needed.
    • Replacement of Red and Processed Meat With Other Food Sources of Protein and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in European Populations: The EPIC-InterAct Study.

      Ibsen, Daniel B; Steur, Marinka; Imamura, Fumiaki; Overvad, Kim; Schulze, Matthias B; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Guevara, Marcela; Agudo, Antonio; Amiano, Pilar; Aune, Dagfinn; et al. (2020-08-31)
    • Replacing the AMOR with the miniDOAS in the ammonia monitoring network in the Netherlands

      Berkhout, Augustinus J. C.; Swart, Daan; Volten, Hester; Gast, Lou F. L.; Haaima, Marty; Verboom, Hans; Stefess, Guus; Hafkenscheid, Theo; Hoogerbrugge, Ronald (2017-11-02)
      In this paper we present the continued development of the miniDOAS, an active differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) instrument used to measure ammonia concentrations in ambient air. The miniDOAS has been adapted for use in the Dutch National Air Quality Monitoring Network. The miniDOAS replaces the life-expired continuous-flow denuder ammonia monitor (AMOR). From September 2014 to December 2015, both instruments measured in parallel before the change from AMOR to miniDOAS was made. The instruments were deployed at six monitoring stations throughout the Netherlands. We report on the results of this intercomparison. Both instruments show a good uptime of ca. 90 %, adequate for an automatic monitoring network. Although both instruments produce 1 min values of ammonia concentrations, a direct comparison on short timescales such as minutes or hours does not give meaningful results because the AMOR response to changing ammonia concentrations is slow. Comparisons between daily and monthly values show good agreement. For monthly averages, we find a small average offset of 0.65 ± 0.28 µg m−3 and a slope of 1.034 ± 0.028, with the miniDOAS measuring slightly higher than the AMOR. The fast time resolution of the miniDOAS makes the instrument suitable not only for monitoring but also for process studies.
    • Reply to Baba and Kanamori.

      Franz, Eelco; Rotariu, Ovidiu; Lopes, Bruno S; Bono, James L; Laing, Chad; Gannon, Victor; van Hoek, Angela H A M; Friesema, Ingrid; French, Nigel P; George, Tessy; et al. (2019-11-11)
    • Reply to Slogrove, et al.

      Goetghebuer, Tessa; Smolen, Kinga K; Adler, Catherine; Das, Jishnu; McBride, Trevor; Smits, Gaby; Lecomte, Sandra; Haelterman, Edwige; Barlow, Patricia; Piedra, Pedro A; et al. (2018-12-11)
    • Repositioning of the global epicentre of non-optimal cholesterol.

      High blood cholesterol is typically considered a feature of wealthy western countries1,2. However, dietary and behavioural determinants of blood cholesterol are changing rapidly throughout the world3 and countries are using lipid-lowering medications at varying rates. These changes can have distinct effects on the levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and non-HDL cholesterol, which have different effects on human health4,5. However, the trends of HDL and non-HDL cholesterol levels over time have not been previously reported in a global analysis. Here we pooled 1,127 population-based studies that measured blood lipids in 102.6 million individuals aged 18 years and older to estimate trends from 1980 to 2018 in mean total, non-HDL and HDL cholesterol levels for 200 countries. Globally, there was little change in total or non-HDL cholesterol from 1980 to 2018. This was a net effect of increases in low- and middle-income countries, especially in east and southeast Asia, and decreases in high-income western countries, especially those in northwestern Europe, and in central and eastern Europe. As a result, countries with the highest level of non-HDL cholesterol-which is a marker of cardiovascular risk-changed from those in western Europe such as Belgium, Finland, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and Malta in 1980 to those in Asia and the Pacific, such as Tokelau, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. In 2017, high non-HDL cholesterol was responsible for an estimated 3.9 million (95% credible interval 3.7 million-4.2 million) worldwide deaths, half of which occurred in east, southeast and south Asia. The global repositioning of lipid-related risk, with non-optimal cholesterol shifting from a distinct feature of high-income countries in northwestern Europe, north America and Australasia to one that affects countries in east and southeast Asia and Oceania should motivate the use of population-based policies and personal interventions to improve nutrition and enhance access to treatment throughout the world.
    • Reproducibility and relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire to estimate intake of dietary phylloquinone and menaquinones.

      Zwakenberg, S R; Engelen, A I P; Dalmeijer, G W; Booth, S L; Vermeer, C; Drijvers, J J M M; Ocke, M C; Feskens, E J M; van der Schouw, Y T; Beulens, J W J (2017-12)
      This study aims to investigate the reproducibility and relative validity of the Dutch food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), to estimate intake of dietary phylloquinone and menaquinones compared with 24-h dietary recalls (24HDRs) and plasma markers of vitamin K status.
    • Reproductive Factors, Exogenous Hormone Use, and Risk of B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in a Cohort of Women From the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition.

      Costas, Laura; Lujan-Barroso, Leila; Benavente, Yolanda; Allen, Naomi E; Amiano, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Besson, Caroline; Boeing, Heiner; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Cervenka, Iris; et al. (2019-02-01)
      The role of hormonal factors in the etiology of lymphoid neoplasms remains unclear. Previous studies have yielded conflicting results, have lacked sufficient statistical power to assess many lymphoma subtypes, or have lacked detailed information on relevant exposures. Within the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, we analyzed comprehensive data on reproductive factors and exogenous hormone use collected at baseline (1992-2000) among 343,458 women, including data on 1,427 incident cases of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and its major subtypes identified after a mean follow-up period of 14 years (through 2015). We estimated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals using multivariable proportional hazards modeling. Overall, we observed no statistically significant associations between parity, age at first birth, breastfeeding, oral contraceptive use, or ever use of postmenopausal hormone therapy and risk of B-cell NHL or its subtypes. Women who had undergone surgical menopause had a 51% higher risk of B-cell NHL (based on 67 cases) than women with natural menopause (hazard ratio = 1.51, 95% confidence interval: 1.17, 1.94). Given that this result may have been due to chance, our results provide little support for the hypothesis that sex hormones play a role in lymphomagenesis.