• Cationically modified membranes using covalent layer-by-layer assembly for antiviral applications in drinking water.

      Sinclair TR; Patil A; Raza BG; Reurink D; Hengel SK van den; Rutjes SA; Roda Husman AM de; Roesink HDW; Vos WM de (2019-01-15)
    • CD1b presents self and Borrelia burgdorferi diacylglycerols to human T cells.

      Reinink, Peter; Souter, Michael N T; Cheng, Tan-Yun; van Gorkom, Tamara; Lenz, Stefanie; Kubler-Kielb, Joanna; Strle, Klemen; Kremer, Kristin; Thijsen, Steven F T; Steere, Allen C; et al. (2019-03-10)
      Lyme disease is a common multisystem disease caused by infection with a tick-transmitted spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi and related Borrelia species. The monoglycosylated diacylglycerol known as B. burgdorferi glycolipid II (BbGL-II) is a major target of antibodies in sera from infected individuals. Here, we show that CD1b presents BbGL-II to human T cells and that the TCR mediates the recognition. However, we did not detect increased frequency of CD1b-BbGL-II binding T cells in the peripheral blood of Lyme disease patients compared to controls. Unexpectedly, mapping the T cell specificity for BbGL-II-like molecules using tetramers and activation assays revealed a concomitant response to CD1b-expressing APCs in absence of BbGL-II. Further, among all major classes of self-lipid tested, BbGL-II responsive TCRs show strong cross-reactivity to diacylglycerol, a self-lipid antigen with structural similarities to BbGL-II. Extending prior work on MHC and CD1b, CD1c, and CD1d proteins, this study provides evidence for cross-reactive CD1b-restricted T cell responses to bacterial and self-antigens, and identifies chemically defined targets for future discovery of self and foreign antigen cross-reactive T cells.
    • CDHR3 gene variation and childhood bronchiolitis.

      Husby, Anders; Pasanen, Anu; Waage, Johannes; Sevelsted, Astrid; Hodemaekers, Hennie; Janssen, Riny; Karjalainen, Minna K; Stokholm, Jakob; Chawes, Bo L; Korppi, Matti; et al. (2017-11)
    • The Challenge of Transparency and Validation in Health Economic Decision Modelling: A View from Mount Hood.

      Kent, Seamus; Becker, Frauke; Feenstra, Talitha; Tran-Duy, An; Schlackow, Iryna; Tew, Michelle; Zhang, Ping; Ye, Wen; Lizheng, Shi; Herman, William; et al. (2019-07-26)
    • Challenges in characterizing the environmental fate and effects of carbon nanotubes and inorganic nanomaterials in aquatic systems

      Laux, Peter; Riebeling, Christian; Booth, Andy M.; Brain, Joseph D.; Brunner, Josephine; Cerrillo, Cristina; Creutzenberg, Otto; Estrela-Lopis, Irina; Gebel, Thomas; Johanson, Gunnar; et al. (2018)
      Characterization of carbon nanotube dispersions requires measurement of both, concentration and surface area.
    • Changes in (risk) behavior and HPV knowledge among Dutch girls eligible for HPV vaccination: an observational cohort study.

      Donken, Robine; Tami, Adriana; Knol, Mirjam J; Lubbers, Karin; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Nijman, Hans W; Daemen, Toos; Weijmar Schultz, Willibrord C M; de Melker, Hester E (2018-07-05)
      Implementation of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination raised concerns that vaccination could lead to riskier sexual behavior. This study explored how possible differences in sexual behavior and HPV knowledge developed over time between HPV-vaccinated and unvaccinated girls.
    • Changes in body composition during and after adjuvant or neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in women with breast cancer stage I-IIIB compared with changes over a similar timeframe in women without cancer.

      van den Berg, M M G A; Kok, D E; Visser, M; de Vries, J H M; de Kruif, J Th C M; de Vries, Y; Posthuma, L; Sommeijer, D W; Timmer-Bonte, A; Los, M; et al. (2019-07-09)
    • Changes in dietary intake, plasma carotenoids and erythrocyte membrane fatty acids in breast cancer survivors after a lifestyle intervention: results from a single-arm trial.

      Buckland, G; Travier, N; Arribas, L; Del Barco, S; Pernas, S; Zamora, E; Bellet, M; Cirauqui, B; Margelí, M; Muñoz, M; et al. (2019-01-21)
      The influence of nutrition on breast cancer prognosis is still inconclusive and therefore dietary interventions incorporating dietary biomarkers are needed to confirm compliance with dietary goals and clarify biological mechanisms. The present study assessed whether a lifestyle intervention in breast cancer survivors could affect dietary biomarkers of fruit and vegetables and fatty acids. In this phase II single-arm trial, 37 overweight/obese early stage breast cancer patients completed a 12-week diet and exercise intervention. The intervention involved 1-h weekly diet sessions delivered by a dietician and 75-min bi-weekly physical activity sessions of moderate-to-high intensity led by trained monitors. Before and after the intervention, three 24-h dietary recalls were carried out to calculate nutrient intakes and, in addition, blood samples were taken to measure plasma carotenoids, vitamin E and retinol concentrations and erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (EFA) composition. Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to assess changes in dietary and biomarkers measurements over the intervention period. After the intervention, there was a significant increase in the intake of dietary carotenoids (+15.1% compared to baseline) but not plasma carotenoids levels (+6.3%). Regarding the EFA levels, we observed a significant decrease in percentage of saturated fatty acids (-1.4%) and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (-2.9%) and an increase in monounsaturated fatty acids (1.7%) and total and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (by 13.1% and 13.7%, respectively). A favourable decrease in the ratio of long-chain n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (-9.1%) was also observed. After a short-term diet and exercise intervention in overweight/obese breast cancer survivors, we observed significant changes in dietary nutrients and fatty acid biomarkers, suggesting positive dietary changes that could be relevant for breast cancer prognosis.
    • Changes in Emissions of Ozone-Depleting Substances from China Due to Implementation of the Montreal Protocol.

      Fang, Xuekun; Ravishankara, A R; Velders, Guus J M; Molina, Mario J; Su, Shenshen; Zhang, Jianbo; Hu, Jianxin; Prinn, Ronald G (2018-10-02)
      The ozone layer depletion and its recovery, as well as the climate influence of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) and their substitutes that influence climate, are of interest to both the scientific community and the public. Here we report on the emissions of ODSs and their substitute from China, which is currently the largest consumer (and emitter) of these substances. We provide, for the first time, comprehensive information on ODSs and replacement hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) emissions in China starting from 1980 based on reported production and usage. We also assess the impacts (and costs) of controls on ODS consumption and emissions on the ozone layer (in terms of CFC-11-equivalent) and climate (in CO2-equivalent). In addition, we show that while China's future ODS emissions are likely to be defined as long as there is full compliance with the Montreal Protocol; its HFC emissions through 2050 are very uncertain. Our findings imply that HFC controls over the next decades that are more stringent than those under the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol would be beneficial in mitigating global climate change.
    • Changes in LXR signaling influence early-pregnancy lipogenesis and protect against dysregulated fetoplacental lipid homeostasis.

      Nikolova, Vanya; Papacleovoulou, Georgia; Bellafante, Elena; Borges Manna, Luiza; Jansen, Eugene; Baron, Silvère; Abu-Hayyeh, Shadi; Parker, Malcolm; Williamson, Catherine (2017-10-01)
      Human pregnancy is associated with enhanced de novo lipogenesis in the early stages followed by hyperlipidemia during advanced gestation. Liver X receptors (LXRs) are oxysterol-activated nuclear receptors that stimulate de novo lipogenesis and also promote the efflux of cholesterol from extrahepatic tissues followed by its transport back to the liver for biliary excretion. Although LXR is recognized as a master regulator of triglyceride and cholesterol homeostasis, it is unknown whether it facilitates the gestational adaptations in lipid metabolism. To address this question, biochemical profiling, protein quantification, and gene expression studies were used, and gestational metabolic changes in T0901317-treated wild-type mice and Lxrab-/- mutants were investigated. Here, we show that altered LXR signaling contributes to the enhanced lipogenesis in early pregnancy by increasing the expression of hepatic Fas and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (Scd1). Both the pharmacological activation of LXR with T0901317 and the genetic ablation of its two isoforms disrupted the increase in hepatic fatty acid biosynthesis and the development of hypertriglyceridemia during early gestation. We also demonstrate that absence of LXR enhances maternal white adipose tissue lipolysis, causing abnormal accumulation of triglycerides, cholesterol, and free fatty acids in the fetal liver. Together, these data identify LXR as an important factor in early-pregnancy lipogenesis that is also necessary to protect against abnormalities in fetoplacental lipid homeostasis.
    • Characterisation of the natural environment: quantitative indicators across Europe.

      Smith, Graham; Cirach, Marta; Swart, Wim; Dėdelė, Audrius; Gidlow, Christopher; van Kempen, Elise; Kruize, Hanneke; Gražulevičienė, Regina; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J (2017-04-26)
      The World Health Organization recognises the importance of natural environments for human health. Evidence for natural environment-health associations comes largely from single countries or regions, with varied approaches to measuring natural environment exposure. We present a standardised approach to measuring neighbourhood natural environment exposure in cities in different regions of Europe.
    • Characterization of Enterococcus Isolates Colonizing the Intestinal Tract of Intensive Care Unit Patients Receiving Selective Digestive Decontamination

      Bello Gonzalez, Teresita d. J.; Pham, Phu; Top, Janetta; Willems, Rob J. L.; van Schaik, Willem; van Passel, Mark W. J.; Smidt, Hauke (2017-08-28)
    • Characterizing Adult Sleep Behavior Over 20 Years-The Population-Based Doetinchem Cohort Study.

      Zomers, Margot L; Hulsegge, Gerben; van Oostrom, Sandra H; Proper, Karin I; Verschuren, W M Monique; Picavet, H Susan J (2017-07-01)
      To describe sleep duration patterns of adults over a 20-year period; to compare sociodemographic, lifestyle, and health characteristics across these patterns; and to relate the patterns to sleep quality.
    • Chemical composition and source identification of PM 10 in five North Western European cities

      Hama, Sarkawt M.L.; Cordell, Rebecca L.; Staelens, Jeroen; Mooibroek, Dennis; Monks, Paul S. (2018-12)
    • Chemical similarity to identify potential substances of very high concern - an effective screening method

      Wassenaar, PNH; Rorije, E; Janssen, NMH; Peijnenburg, WJGM; Vijver, MG (2019-09-10)
    • Chikungunya virus outbreak in Sint Maarten: Long-term arthralgia after a 15-month period.

      Peters, C M M; Pijnacker, R; Fanoy, E B; Bouwman, L J T; de Langen, L E; van den Kerkhof, J H T C; Reimerink, J; Pilot, E; Henry, M; Oostburg, V Asin; et al. (2018-11-19)
      The first chikungunya (CHIK) epidemic in the Americas was reported in December 2013. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes an acute febrile illness and is transmitted to humans by Aedes mosquitoes. Although earlier studies have described long-term clinical manifestations of CHIK patients infected with the East/Central/South African (ECSA) genotype, little is known about persistent manifestations in the Caribbean region, for which the Asian genotype is responsible. The objective of this study was to describe the presence of persisting clinical manifestations, specifically arthralgia, in CHIKV-infected patients on the Caribbean Island, Sint Maarten, 15 months after onset of the disease.
    • Childhood infections and common carotid intima media thickness in adolescence.

      Prins-van Ginkel, A C; Bruijning-Verhagen, P C J; Wijga, A H; Bots, M L; Gehring, U; VAN DER Hoek, W; Koppelman, G H; van Rossem, L; Uiterwaal, C S P M; Smit, H A; et al. (2018-11-08)
      Atherosclerotic changes can be measured as changes in common carotid intima media thickness (CIMT). It is hypothesised that repeated infection-associated inflammatory responses in childhood contribute to the atherosclerotic process. We set out to determine whether the frequency of infectious diseases in childhood is associated with CIMT in adolescence. The study is part of the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) population-based birth cohort. At age 16 years, common CIMT was measured. We collected general practitioner (GP) diagnosed infections and prescribed antibiotics. Parent-reported infections were retrieved from annual questionnaires. Linear regression analysis assessed the association between number of infections during the first 4 years of life and common CIMT. Common CIMT measurement, GP and questionnaire data were available for 221 participants. No association was observed between the infection measures and CIMT. In a subgroup analysis, significant positive associations with CIMT were observed in participants with low parental education for 2-3 or ⩾7 GP diagnosed infections (+26.4 µm, 95% CI 0.4-52.4 and +26.8 µm, 95% CI 3.6-49.9, respectively) and ⩾3 antibiotic prescriptions (+35.5 µm, 95%CI 15.8-55.3). Overall, early childhood infections were not associated with common CIMT in adolescence. However, a higher number of childhood infections might contribute to the inflammatory process of atherosclerosis in subgroups with low education, this needs to be confirmed in future studies.