• Disability weights for infectious diseases in four European countries: comparison between countries and across respondent characteristics.

      Maertens de Noordhout, Charline; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Salomon, Joshua A; Turner, Heather; Cassini, Alessandro; Colzani, Edoardo; Speybroeck, Niko; Polinder, Suzanne; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E; Havelaar, Arie H; et al. (2018-02-01)
      In 2015, new disability weights (DWs) for infectious diseases were constructed based on data from four European countries. In this paper, we evaluated if country, age, sex, disease experience status, income and educational levels have an impact on these DWs.
    • Disagreement between the results from three commercial tests for the detection of Borrelia-specific serum antibodies in the Netherlands associated with antibiotic treatment for Lyme borreliosis: a retrospective study.

      van Gorkom, T; Kremer, K; Voet, W; Notermans, D W; Vlaminckx, B J M; Sankatsing, S U C; Thijsen, S F T (2017-11)
      The diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis is challenging because of the often non-specific symptoms and persisting antibodies after infection. We investigated the diagnostic characteristics of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and an immunoblot for the detection of Borrelia-specific serum antibodies using different test strategies in individuals with and without antibiotic treatment for Lyme borreliosis. This retrospective study included healthy individuals, patients with active Lyme neuroborreliosis and patients treated for Lyme neuroborreliosis. Two ELISAs were compared: the C6 ELISA and the SERION ELISA. Equivocal and positive results were confirmed by immunoblot. We included 174 healthy individuals, of whom 27 (15.5%) were treated for Lyme borreliosis in the past, 36 patients were treated for Lyme neuroborreliosis and 27 patients had active Lyme neuroborreliosis. All the active Lyme neuroborreliosis patients were reactive in both ELISAs (100% sensitivity); less reactivity was seen in the other three groups (range 17.7% to 69.4%). The concordance between the ELISA results was high in active Lyme neuroborreliosis patients (26/27; 96.3%) and healthy individuals (131/147; 89.1%), but lower in treated healthy individuals (18/27; 66.7%) and treated Lyme neuroborreliosis patients (18/36; 50.0%) (p ≤ 0.005). This study showed that antibiotic treatment against Lyme borreliosis was strongly associated with discordant ELISA and test strategy results (odds ratio: 10.52; p < 0.001 and 9.98; p = 0.014, respectively) suggesting antibiotic treatment influences the pace at which the various antibodies directed to the different antigens used in both ELISAs wane. Among treated neuroborreliosis patients, the SERION ELISA stayed positive for a longer period after infection compared to the C6 ELISA. This should be taken into consideration when requesting and/or interpreting Lyme serology.
    • Discovery of trehalose phospholipids reveals functional convergence with mycobacteria.

      Reinink, Peter; Buter, Jeffrey; Mishra, Vivek K; Ishikawa, Eri; Cheng, Tan-Yun; Willemsen, Peter T J; Porwollik, Steffen; Brennan, Patrick J; Heinz, Eva; Mayfield, Jacob A; et al. (2019-02-25)
      species are among the world's most prevalent pathogens. Because the cell wall interfaces with the host, we designed a lipidomics approach to reveal pathogen-specific cell wall compounds. Among the molecules differentially expressed between
    • Disease burden of neonatal invasive Group B Streptococcus infection in the Netherlands.

      de Gier, Brechje; van Kassel, Merel N; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; van de Beek, Diederik; Hahné, Susan J M; van der Ende, Arie; Bijlsma, Merijn W (2019-01-01)
    • Disease burden of psittacosis in the Netherlands.

      de Gier, B; Hogerwerf, L; Dijkstra, F; van der Hoek, W (2018-01-24)
      Psittacosis (infection with Chlamydia psittaci) can have diverse presentations in humans, ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe systemic disease. Awareness of psittacosis and its presentations are low among clinicians and the general public. Therefore, underdiagnosis and thereby underestimation of the incidence and public health importance of psittacosis is very likely. We used the methodology developed for the Burden of communicable diseases in Europe toolkit of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, to construct a model to estimate disease burden in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) attributable to psittacosis. Using this model, we estimated the disease burden caused by psittacosis in the Netherlands to have been 222 DALY per year (95% CI 172-280) over the period 2012-2014. This is comparable with the amount of DALYs estimated to be due to rubella or shigellosis in the same period in the Netherlands. Our results highlight the public health importance of psittacosis and identify evidence gaps pertaining to the clinical presentations and prognosis of this disease.
    • Disease burden of varicella versus other vaccine-preventable diseases before introduction of vaccination into the national immunisation programme in the Netherlands.

      van Lier, Alies; de Gier, Brechje; McDonald, Scott A; Mangen, Marie-Josée J; van Wijhe, Maarten; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E; van Vliet, Hans; de Melker, Hester E (2019-05-01)
    • Disparities in stroke preventive care in general practice did not explain socioeconomic disparities in stroke.

      Avendano, Mauricio; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Schellevis, F G; Mackenbach, Johan P; Lenthe, Frank J van; Bos, G A M van den (2006-12-01)
      OBJECTIVE: To assess socioeconomic disparities in stroke incidence and in the quality of preventive care for stroke in the Netherlands. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTINGS: A total of 190,664 patients who registered in 96 general practices were followed up for 12 months. Data were collected on diagnoses, referrals, prescriptions, and diagnostic procedures. Hazard ratios (HR) were calculated to assess the association between educational level and stroke incidence. Multilevel logistic regression was used to assess socioeconomic disparities in the quality of preventive care for stroke precursors. RESULTS: Lower educational level was associated with higher incidence of stroke in men (HR=1.36, 95% CI=1.06-1.74) but not in women. Among both men and women, there were socioeconomic disparities in the prevalence of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, angina pectoris, heart failure, and peripheral artery disease. Lower educated hypercholesterolemia patients under medication were less likely to be prescribed statins (odds ratio=0.62, 95% CI=0.42-0.91). However, for other precursors of stroke, there were no major disparities in the quality of preventive care. CONCLUSION: There are socioeconomic disparities in stroke incidence among men but not among women. Socioeconomic differences in factors such as hypertension and diabetes are likely to contribute to stroke disparities. However, general practitioners (GPs) provide care of a similar quality to patients from different socioeconomic groups.
    • The dispersion, stability, and resuspension of C in environmental water matrices.

      Ding, Guanghui; Li, Xueyao; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Nannan; Li, Ruijuan; Wang, Yingying; Yang, Zhanning; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M (2019-09-01)
      Environmental waters cover a range of water quality characteristics which could greatly affect the behavior and fate of C60 in the aquatic environment. In this study, the dispersion and stability of C60 in several environmental water matrices during a 70-day extended mixing period were investigated to better understand its environmental behavior and fate in environmental waters. Relatively stable nanoscale aggregates in water (aqu/nC60) could be formed in wastewater influent, while unstable suspensions were obtained in river water, wastewater effluent, seawater, and estuarine water. During the extended mixing under sunlight, oxygen-containing moieties were produced on the surface of the C60 aggregates, independent of the kind of environmental water matrices. Once the mixed system went under quiescent condition, aggregation and sedimentation of aqu/nC60 occurred. However, an extremely short-time disturbance could easily resuspend the C60 aggregates deposited and increase the concentration of aqu/nC60 in the overlying water column. Therefore, the effects of resuspension should be considered when investigating the environmental behavior and fate of C60.
    • Dissipative particle dynamic simulation and experimental assessment of the impacts of humic substances on aqueous aggregation and dispersion of engineered nanoparticles.

      Wang, Zhuang; Quik, Joris T K; Song, Lan; Wouterse, Marja; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M (2017-12-14)
      Comprehensive experimental quantification and mapping of the aggregation and dispersion state of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in the presence of humic substances is a great challenge. Dissipative particle dynamic (DPD) simulation was adopted to investigate the aggregation and dispersion mechanisms of NPs in the presence of a humic substance analog. Twelve different types of NPs including 2 metal-based NPs, 7 metal oxide-based NPs, and 3 carbon-based NPs in pure water (pH 3.0) and algae medium (pH 8.0) in the presence of a humic substance analogy were selected for experimental verification of the DPD simulation results. In agreement with results obtained with dynamic light scattering and phase analysis light scattering techniques, the simulations demonstrated that the presence of humic substances reduced the aggregation extent of the NPs. The DPD simulations showed that the stability and dispersity of the NPs increased first, and then decreased with increasing concentrations of humic substances. Moreover, there existed a concentration of humic substances where the NPs became more stable and more dispersed, which was experimentally verified in the case of all the NPs in the pure water and in the algae medium. Furthermore, theory and simulation indicate that both hydrophobic and hydrogen interaction play an important role in controlling the formation of NP aggregates in the presence of humic substances. Electrostatic interaction and steric repulsion are the main mechanisms underlying the effects of humic substances on the aqueous dispersion stability of NPs. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;9999:1-8. © 2017 SETAC.
    • Dissolution and aggregation kinetics of zero valent copper nanoparticles in (simulated) natural surface waters: Simultaneous effects of pH, NOM and ionic strength.

      Arenas-Lago, Daniel; Abdolahpur Monikh, Fazel; Vijver, Martina G; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M (2019-04-01)
      The combined effects of pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and Ca
    • Distant regions underpin interregional flows of cultural ecosystem services provided by birds and mammals.

      Schröter, Matthias; Kraemer, Roland; Remme, Roy P; van Oudenhoven, Alexander P E (2019-09-24)
    • Distinguishing Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto genotypes G1 and G3 with confidence: A practical guide.

      Kinkar, Liina; Laurimäe, Teivi; Acosta-Jamett, Gerardo; Andresiuk, Vanessa; Balkaya, Ibrahim; Casulli, Adriano; Gasser, Robin B; González, Luis Miguel; Haag, Karen L; Zait, Houria; et al. (2018-06-21)
      Cystic echinococcosis (CE), a zoonotic disease caused by tapeworms of the species complex Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato, represents a substantial global health and economic burden. Within this complex, E. granulosus sensu stricto (genotypes G1 and G3) is the most frequent causative agent of human CE. Currently, there is no fully reliable method for assigning samples to genotypes G1 and G3, as the commonly used mitochondrial cox1 and nad1 genes are not sufficiently consistent for the identification and differentiation of these genotypes. Thus, a new genetic assay is required for the accurate assignment of G1 and G3. Here we use a large dataset of near-complete mtDNA sequences (n = 303) to reveal the extent of genetic variation of G1 and G3 on a broad geographical scale and to identify reliable informative positions for G1 and G3. Based on extensive sampling and sequencing data, we developed a new method, that is simple and cost-effective, to designate samples to genotypes G1 and G3. We found that the nad5 is the best gene in mtDNA to differentiate between G1 and G3, and developed new primers for the analysis. Our results also highlight problems related to the commonly used cox1 and nad1. To guarantee consistent identification of G1 and G3, we suggest using the sequencing of the nad5 gene region (680 bp). This region contains six informative positions within a relatively short fragment of the mtDNA, allowing the differentiation of G1 and G3 with confidence. Our method offers clear advantages over the previous ones, providing a significantly more consistent means to distinguish G1 and G3 than the commonly used cox1 and nad1.
    • Distribution of Salmonella enterica serovars from humans, livestock and meat in Vietnam and the dominance of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type 90.

      Vo, An T T; Duijkeren, Engeline van; Fluit, Ad C; Heck, Max E O C; Verbruggen, Anjo J; Maas, Henny M E; Gaastra, Wim (2006-03-10)
      Epidemiologically unrelated non-typhoid Salmonella isolates from humans (n = 56) and animal origin (n = 241, from faeces, carcasses and meat) in Vietnam were investigated. Salmonella Typhimurium, S. Anatum, S. Weltevreden, S. Emek, and S. Rissen were the most prevalent serovars. S. Typhimurium phage type 90 was predominant among S. Typhimurium isolates. The serotype and phage type distribution of the Salmonella isolates was different from that in Europe and America. Many sero- and phage types found in humans were also found in cattle, pigs, and poultry suggesting that food producing animals are an important source of human non-typhoid Salmonella infection in Vietnam.
    • Distribution of serotypes and patterns of antimicrobial resistance among commensal Streptococcus pneumoniae in nine European countries.

      Yahiaoui, Rachid Y; Bootsma, Hester J; den Heijer, Casper D J; Pluister, Gerlinde N; John Paget, W; Spreeuwenberg, Peter; Trzcinski, Krzysztof; Stobberingh, Ellen E (2018-08-29)
      Streptococcus pneumoniae is a commensal of the human upper respiratory tract and a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. This paper presents the distribution of serotypes and antimicrobial resistance in commensal S. pneumoniae strains cultured from healthy carriers older than four years of age in nine European countries.
    • Distribution of the serine-aspartate repeat protein-encoding sdr genes among nasal-carriage and invasive Staphylococcus aureus strains.

      Sabat, Artur; Melles, Damian C; Martirosian, Gayane; Grundmann, Hajo; Belkum, Alex van; Hryniewicz, Waleria (2006-03-01)
      The sdr locus was found in all 497 investigated Staphylococcus aureus strains, although in 29 strains it contained only the sdrC gene (sdrD negative, sdrE negative). The sdrC-positive, sdrD-negative, sdrE-negative gene profile was exclusive to methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) strains (Fisher's exact test; P = 0.0005) and was not found in the strains collected from bone infections (P = 0.0019). We also found a strong association between the presence of the sdrD gene and methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains (P < 0.0001). Our findings suggest that MSSA strains with the newly uncovered sdrC-positive, sdrD-negative, sdrE-negative gene profile have a substantially decreased potential to establish bone infection.
    • Distribution of zoonotic variegated squirrel bornavirus 1 in naturally infected variegated and Prevost's squirrels.

      Petzold, Jana; van den Brand, Judith M A; Nobach, Daniel; Hoffmann, Bernd; Hoffmann, Donata; Fast, Christine; Reusken, Chantal B E M; van Run, Peter R W A; Schlottau, Kore; Beer, Martin; et al. (2019-08-06)
    • A Diurnal Rhythm in Brown Adipose Tissue Causes Rapid Clearance and Combustion of Plasma Lipids at Wakening.

      van den Berg, Rosa; Kooijman, Sander; Noordam, Raymond; Ramkisoensing, Ashna; Abreu-Vieira, Gustavo; Tambyrajah, Lauren L; Dijk, Wieneke; Ruppert, Philip; Mol, Isabel M; Kramar, Barbara; et al. (2018-03-27)
      Many favorable metabolic effects have been attributed to thermogenic activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT). Yet, time of day has rarely been considered in this field of research. Here, we show that a diurnal rhythm in BAT activity regulates plasma lipid metabolism. We observed a high-amplitude rhythm in fatty acid uptake by BAT that synchronized with the light/dark cycle. Highest uptake was found at the onset of the active period, which coincided with high lipoprotein lipase expression and low angiopoietin-like 4 expression by BAT. Diurnal rhythmicity in BAT activity determined the rate at which lipids were cleared from the circulation, thereby imposing the daily rhythm in plasma lipid concentrations. In mice as well as humans, postprandial lipid excursions were nearly absent at waking. We anticipate that diurnal BAT activity is an important factor to consider when studying the therapeutic potential of promoting BAT activity.
    • Diurnal temperature range in relation to death from stroke in China

      Yang J; Zhou M; Li M; Yin P; Wang B; Pilot E; Liu Y; van der Hoek W; van Asten L; Krafft T; et al. (2018-04)
    • Diverse tick-borne microorganisms identified in free-living ungulates in Slovakia.

      Kazimírová, Mária; Hamšíková, Zuzana; Špitalská, Eva; Minichová, Lenka; Mahríková, Lenka; Caban, Radoslav; Sprong, Hein; Fonville, Manoj; Schnittger, Leonhard; Kocianová, Elena (2018-09-03)
      Free-living ungulates are hosts of ixodid ticks and reservoirs of tick-borne microorganisms in central Europe and many regions around the world. Tissue samples and engorged ticks were obtained from roe deer, red deer, fallow deer, mouflon, and wild boar hunted in deciduous forests of south-western Slovakia. DNA isolated from these samples was screened for the presence of tick-borne microorganisms by PCR-based methods.
    • Diversity of aging of the immune system classified in the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) model of human infectious diseases.

      Guichelaar, Teun; van Erp, Elisabeth A; Hoeboer, Jeroen; Smits, Noortje A M; van Els, Cécile A C M; Pieren, Daan K J; Luytjes, Willem (2018-01-02)
      Susceptibility and declined resistance to human pathogens like respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) at old age is well represented in the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus). Despite providing a preferred model of human infectious diseases, little is known about aging of its adaptive immune system. We aimed to define aging-related changes of the immune system of this species. Concomitantly, we asked whether the rate of immunological alterations may be stratified by physiological aberrations encountered during aging. With increasing age, cotton rats showed reduced frequencies of T cells, impaired induction of antibodies to RSV, higher incidence of aberrations of organs and signs of lipemia. Moreover, old animals expressed high biological heterogeneity, but the age-related reduction of T cell frequency was only observed in those specimens that displayed aberrant organs. Thus, cotton rats show age-related alterations of lymphocytes that can be classified by links with health status.