• FFQ versus repeated 24-h recalls for estimating diet-related environmental impact.

      Mertens, Elly; Kuijsten, Anneleen; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Feskens, Edith J M; Van't Veer, Pieter (2019-01-08)
      There is an increasing interest in estimating environmental impact of individuals' diets by using individual-level food consumption data. However, like assessment of nutrient intakes, these data are prone to substantial measurement errors dependent on the method of dietary assessment, and this often result in attenuation of associations. To investigate the performance of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for estimating the environmental impact of the diet as compared to independent 24-h recalls (24hR), and to study the association between environmental impact and dietary quality for the FFQ and 24hR. We analysed cross-sectional data from 1169 men and women, aged 20-76 years, who participated in the NQplus study, the Netherlands. They completed a 216-item FFQ and two replicates of web-based 24hR. Life cycle assessments of 207 food products were used to calculate greenhouse gas emissions, fossil energy and land use, summarised into an aggregated score, pReCiPe. Validity of the FFQ was evaluated against 24hRs using correlation coefficients and attenuation coefficients. Associations with dietary quality were based on Dutch Healthy Diet 15-index (DHD15-index) and Nutrient Rich Diet score (NRD9.3). For pReCiPe, correlation coefficient between FFQ and 24hR was 0.33 when adjusted for covariates age, gender and BMI, and increased to 0.76 when de-attenuated for within-subject variation in the 24hR. Energy-adjustment slightly reduced these correlations (r = 0.71 for residuals of observed values and 0.59 for residuals of density values). Covariate-adjusted attenuation coefficient for the FFQ was 0.56 (ʎ
    • Filet américain oorzaak van eerste landelijke uitbraak van Shigatoxine-producerende Escherichia coli O157-infecties

      Doorduyn, Y; Jager, C M de; Zwaluw, W K van der; Friesema, I H M; Heuvelink, A E; Boer, E de; Wannet, Wim J B; Duynhoven, Yvonne T H P van (RIVM, 2006-08-01)
      In September 2005, the first nationwide outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 infections was observed. A total of 21 confirmed and 11 probable patients were reported, who fell ill between September 11 and October 10. Preliminary investigation by the local public health services revealed two possible risk factors: consumption of steak tartare and contact with other persons with gastroenteritis. The results of the subsequent case-control study suggested steak tartare as the most likely cause of the outbreak. Samples of steak tartare taken at a supermarket chain where most of the patients bought the product, tested negative for STEC O157. However, sampling took place 3 days after the date of symptom onset of the last outbreak case. Because 88% of the cases became ill within a two-week period and samples taken shortly afterwards tested negative, point source contamination of steak tartare was considered most plausible.
    • First case of severe pneumonic tularemia in an immunocompetent patient in the Netherlands.

      Sigaloff, K C E; Chung, P K; Koopmans, J; Notermans, D W; van Rijckevorsel, G G C; Koene, M; Sprengers, R W; Gooskens, J; Stalenhoef, J E (2017-09)
      Tularemia is a zoonosis caused by different subspecies of the Gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis. We report the first case in the Netherlands of pneumonic tularemia caused by the F. tularensis subspecies holarctica after probable occupational inhalation of contaminated aerosols. Notification of cases of tularemia has been mandatory by law in the Netherlands since 1 November 2016.
    • First detection of Borrelia miyamotoi in Ixodes ricinus ticks from northern Italy.

      Ravagnan, Silvia; Tomassone, Laura; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Krawczyk, Aleksandra Iwona; Mastrorilli, Eleonora; Sprong, Hein; Milani, Adelaide; Rossi, Luca; Capelli, Gioia (2018-03-20)
      Borrelia miyamotoi is a spirochete transmitted by several ixodid tick species. It causes a relapsing fever in humans and is currently considered as an emerging pathogen. In Europe, B. miyamotoi seems to occur at low prevalence in Ixodes ricinus ticks but has a wide distribution. Here we report the first detection of B. miyamotoi in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in two independent studies conducted in 2016 in the north-eastern and north-western Alps, Italy.
    • The first isolation and molecular characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from horses in Serbia.

      Klun, Ivana; Uzelac, Aleksandra; Villena, Isabelle; Mercier, Aurélien; Bobić, Branko; Nikolić, Aleksandra; Rajnpreht, Irena; Opsteegh, Marieke; Aubert, Dominique; Blaga, Radu; van der Giessen, Joke; Djurković-Djaković, Olgica (2017-04-04)
      Consumption of undercooked or insufficiently cured meat is a major risk factor for human infection with Toxoplasma gondii. Although horsemeat is typically consumed rare or undercooked, information on the risk of T. gondii from infected horse meat to humans is scarce. Here, we present the results of a study to determine the presence of T. gondii infection in slaughter horses in Serbia, and to attempt to isolate viable parasites.
    • First isolation of Trichinella britovi from a wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Belgium.

      Schynts, F; Giessen, Joke van der; Tixhon, S; Pozio, E; Dorny, P; Borchgrave, J de (2006-01-30)
      Since 1992, when the European Union Council Directive requires that wild boars (Sus scrofa) hunted in EU for commercial purpose should be examined for Trichinella, the infection has not been detected in wild boars from Belgium, despite serological evidence of the presence of anti-Trichinella antibodies in wildlife and previous reports of Trichinella larvae in this host species. In November 2004, Trichinella larvae were detected in a wild boar hunted near Mettet, Namur province (Southern Belgium). Larvae were identified as Trichinella britovi by polymerase chain reaction methods. This is the first report of the identification of Trichinella larvae from Belgium at the species level. The detection of T. britovi in wildlife in Belgium is consistent with findings of this parasite in other European countries and confirms the need to test game meat for Trichinella to prevent its transmission to humans.
    • First outcomes of the fairmode & aquila intercomparison exercise on spatial representativeness

      Kracht O; Santiago JL; Martin F; Piersanti A; Cremona G; Righini G; Vitali L; Delaney KNguyen L (2018-06-06)
    • First trimester placental vascularization and angiogenetic factors are associated with adverse pregnancy outcome

      Leijnse, Johanna E.W.; de Heus, Roel; de Jager, Wilco; Rodenburg, Wendy; Peeters, Louis L.H.; Franx, Arie; Eijkelkamp, Niels (2018-07)
    • Fish consumption, intake of fats and cognitive decline at middle and older age: the Doetinchem Cohort Study.

      Nooyens, Astrid C J; van Gelder, Boukje M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Boxtel, Martin P J; Verschuren, W M Monique (2017-05-09)
      To get insight in the impact of fish and fat intake in the prevention of accelerated cognitive decline with ageing, we tested associations between fish and different fat intakes and 5-year change in cognitive functions.
    • Fish embryo toxicity test, threshold approach, and moribund as approaches to implement 3R principles to the acute fish toxicity test.

      Dang, ZhiChao; van der Ven, Leo T M; Kienhuis, Anne S (2017-11)
      The acute fish toxicity test (AFT) is requested by EU legal frameworks for hazard classification and risk assessment. AFT is one of the few regulatory required tests using death as an endpoint. This paper reviews efforts made to reduce, refine and replace (3Rs) AFT. We make an inventory of information requirements for AFT, summarize studies on 3Rs of AFT and give recommendations. The fish embryo toxicity test (FET) is proposed as a replacement of AFT and analyses have focused on two aspects: assessing the capacity of FET in predicting AFT and defining the applicability domain of FET. Six comparison studies have consistently shown a strong correlation of FET and AFT. In contrast, the applicability domain of FET has not yet been fully defined. FET has not yet been accepted as a replacement of AFT by any EU legal frameworks to fulfill information requirements because FET is insensitive to some chemicals. It is recommended that the outlier chemicals that do not correlate between FET and AFT should be further investigated. When necessary, additional FET data should be generated. Another effort to reduce and refine AFT is incorporation of FET into the threshold approach. Furthermore, moribund as an endpoint of fish death has been introduced in revising AFT guideline to reduce the duration of suffering for refinement. This endpoint, however, needs further work on the link of moribund and death. Global regulatory acceptance of the moribund endpoint would be critical for this development.
    • Fluidity of the dietary fatty acid profile and risk of coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke: Results from the EPIC-Netherlands cohort study.

      Sluijs, I; Praagman, J; Boer, J M A; Verschuren, W M M; van der Schouw, Y T (2017-09)
      The fluidity of dietary fatty acids consumed has been suggested to inversely affect coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Lipophilic index (LI) represents overall fluidity of the dietary fatty acid profile. Lipophilic load (LL) represents a combination of overall fluidity and absolute intake of dietary fatty acids. We investigated the relations of dietary LI and LL with risk of CHD and ischemic stroke (iStroke).
    • Foliumzuurverrijking: zowel preventie als bevordering van kanker

      Kloosterman, J; Jong, N de; Rompelberg, Cathy J M; Kranen, Henk J van; Kampman, E; Ocké, Marga C (2006-01-16)
      In veel landen wordt foliumzuur toegevoegd aan voedingsmiddelen ter voorkoming van neuraalbuisdefecten. Daarnaast worden gunstige effecten op kanker, hart- en vaatziekten en dementie verondersteld. Foliumzuurverrijking is in Nederland niet toegestaan; wel is het mogelijk om ontheffing van dit verbod aan te vragen. Behalve gunstige effecten kunnen er ook ongewenste effecten optreden, zoals maskering van vitamine B12-deficiëntie. Daarnaast zijn er aanwijzingen dat foliumzuurinname bij proefdier en mens tot progressie van bestaande tumoren zou kunnen leiden. Bovendien bestaat de hypothese dat verrijking met foliumzuur via genetische selectie eveneens tot ongewenste effecten op kanker kan leiden. Gezien de hoge prevalentie van kanker is het van belang dat de kans op deze ongewenste effecten wordt meegewogen in de Nederlandse discussie over voor- en nadelen van foliumzuurverrijking.
    • Foodborne Parasitic Diseases in Europe: Social Cost-Benefit Analyses of Interventions.

      Robertson, Lucy J; Torgerson, Paul R; van der Giessen, Joke (2018-06-16)
      Social cost-benefit analysis (SCBA) can be used to evaluate the benefit to society as a whole of a particular intervention. Describing preliminary steps of an SCBA for two foodborne parasitic diseases, echinococcosis and cryptosporidiosis, indicates where data are needed in order to identify those interventions of greatest benefit.
    • Foodborne pathogens and their risk exposure factors associated with farm vegetables in Rwanda.

      Ssemanda JN; Reij MW; Middendorp G van; Bouw E; van der Plaats R; Franz E; Mambo Muvunyi C; Bagabe MC; Zwietering MH; Joosten H (2018-04-15)
    • Four experimental stimulants found in sports and weight loss supplements: 2-amino-6-methylheptane (octodrine), 1,4-dimethylamylamine (1,4-DMAA), 1,3-dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) and 1,3-dimethylbutylamine (1,3-DMBA).

      Cohen, Pieter A; Travis, John C; Keizers, Peter H J; Deuster, Patricia; Venhuis, Bastiaan J (2017-11-08)
      The United States Food and Drug Administration banned the stimulant 1,3-dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) from dietary supplements and warned consumers that the stimulant can pose cardiovascular risks ranging from high blood pressure to heart attacks.
    • A four-domain approach of frailty explored in the Doetinchem Cohort Study.

      van Oostrom, Sandra H; van der A, Daphne L; Rietman, M Liset; Picavet, H Susan J; Lette, Manon; Verschuren, W M Monique; de Bruin, Simone R; Spijkerman, Annemieke M W (2017-08-30)
      Accumulation of problems in physical, psychological, cognitive, or social functioning is characteristic for frail individuals. Using a four-domain approach of frailty, this study explored how sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, life events and health are associated with frailty.
    • A Framework for the Risk Assessment and Management of Gene Drive Technology in Contained Use

      van der Vlugt, Cécile J. B.; Brown, David D.; Lehmann, Kathleen; Leunda, Amaya; Willemarck, Nicolas; National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, the Netherlands; Microbiology and Biotechnology Unit, Bootle, Merseyside, UK; Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety, Berlin, Germany; Scientific Institute of Public Health (WIV-ISP), Brussels, Belgium; Scientific Institute of Public Health (WIV-ISP), Brussels, Belgium (2018-03-05)
    • Frequency and determinants of consistent STI/HIV testing among men who have sex with men testing at STI outpatient clinics in the Netherlands: a longitudinal study.

      Visser, Maartje; Heijne, Janneke C M; Hogewoning, Arjan A; van Aar, Fleur (2017)
      Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at highest risk for STIs and HIV infections in the Netherlands. However, official guidelines on STI testing among MSM are lacking. They are advised to test for STIs at least every six months, but their testing behaviour is not well known. This study aimed to get insight into the proportion and determinants of consistent 6-monthly STI testing among MSM testing at STI outpatient clinics in the Netherlands.
    • Frequency of Adverse Events after Vaccination with Different Vaccinia Strains.

      Kretzschmar, Mirjam; Wallinga, Jacco; Teunis, Peter F M; Xing, Shuqin; Mikolajczyk, Rafael (2006-08-22)
      BACKGROUND: Large quantities of smallpox vaccine have been stockpiled to protect entire nations against a possible reintroduction of smallpox. Planning for an appropriate use of these stockpiled vaccines in response to a smallpox outbreak requires a rational assessment of the risks of vaccination-related adverse events, compared to the risk of contracting an infection. Although considerable effort has been made to understand the dynamics of smallpox transmission in modern societies, little attention has been paid to estimating the frequency of adverse events due to smallpox vaccination. Studies exploring the consequences of smallpox vaccination strategies have commonly used a frequency of approximately one death per million vaccinations, which is based on a study of vaccination with the New York City Board of Health (NYCBH) strain of vaccinia virus. However, a multitude of historical studies of smallpox vaccination with other vaccinia strains suggest that there are strain-related differences in the frequency of adverse events after vaccination. Because many countries have stockpiled vaccine based on the Lister strain of vaccinia virus, a quantitative evaluation of the adverse effects of such vaccines is essential for emergency response planning. We conducted a systematic review and statistical analysis of historical data concerning vaccination against smallpox with different strains of vaccinia virus. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed historical vaccination data extracted from the literature. We extracted data on the frequency of postvaccinal encephalitis and death with respect to vaccinia strain and age of vaccinees. Using a hierarchical Bayesian approach for meta-analysis, we estimated the expected frequencies of postvaccinal encephalitis and death with respect to age at vaccination for smallpox vaccines based on the NYCBH and Lister vaccinia strains. We found large heterogeneity between findings from different studies and a time-period effect that showed decreasing incidences of adverse events over several decades. To estimate death rates, we then restricted our analysis to more-recent studies. We estimated that vaccination with the NYCBH strain leads to an average of 1.4 deaths per million vaccinations (95% credible interval, 0-6) and that vaccination with Lister vaccine leads to an average of 8.4 deaths per million vaccinations (95% credible interval, 0-31). We combined age-dependent estimates of the frequency of death after vaccination and revaccination with demographic data to obtain estimates of the expected number of deaths in present societies due to vaccination with the NYCBH and Lister vaccinia strains. CONCLUSIONS: Previous analyses of smallpox vaccination policies, which rely on the commonly assumed value of one death per million vaccinations, may give serious underestimates of the number of deaths resulting from vaccination. Moreover, because there are large, strain-dependent differences in the frequency of adverse events due to smallpox vaccination, it is difficult to extrapolate from predictions for the NYCBH-derived vaccines (stockpiled in countries such as the US) to predictions for the Lister-derived vaccines (stockpiled in countries such as Germany). In planning for an effective response to a possible smallpox outbreak, public-health decision makers should reconsider their strategies of when to opt for ring vaccination and when to opt for mass vaccination.