• Genetic variation in the ADIPOQ gene, adiponectin concentrations and risk of colorectal cancer: a Mendelian Randomization analysis using data from three large cohort studies.

      Nimptsch, Katharina; Song, Mingyang; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Katsoulis, Michail; Freisling, Heinz; Jenab, Mazda; Gunter, Marc J; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H Bas; Chong, Dawn Q; Jensen, Majken K; Wu, Chunsen; Overvad, Kim; Kühn, Tilman; Barrdahl, Myrto; Melander, Olle; Jirström, Karin; Peeters, Petra H; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Salvatore; Cross, Amanda J; Riboli, Elio; Van Guelpen, Bethany; Myte, Robin; Huerta, José María; Rodriguez-Barranco, Miguel; Quirós, José Ramón; Dorronsoro, Miren; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Travis, Ruth; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Carbonnel, Franck; Severi, Gianluca; Bonet, Catalina; Palli, Domenico; Janke, Jürgen; Lee, Young-Ae; Boeing, Heiner; Giovannucci, Edward L; Ogino, Shuji; Fuchs, Charles S; Rimm, Eric; Wu, Kana; Chan, Andrew T; Pischon, Tobias (2017-05)
      Higher levels of circulating adiponectin have been related to lower risk of colorectal cancer in several prospective cohort studies, but it remains unclear whether this association may be causal. We aimed to improve causal inference in a Mendelian Randomization meta-analysis using nested case-control studies of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC, 623 cases, 623 matched controls), the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS, 231 cases, 230 controls) and the Nurses' Health Study (NHS, 399 cases, 774 controls) with available data on pre-diagnostic adiponectin concentrations and selected single nucleotide polymorphisms in the ADIPOQ gene. We created an ADIPOQ allele score that explained approximately 3% of the interindividual variation in adiponectin concentrations. The ADIPOQ allele score was not associated with risk of colorectal cancer in logistic regression analyses (pooled OR per score-unit unit 0.97, 95% CI 0.91, 1.04). Genetically determined twofold higher adiponectin was not significantly associated with risk of colorectal cancer using the ADIPOQ allele score as instrumental variable (pooled OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.40, 1.34). In a summary instrumental variable analysis (based on previously published data) with higher statistical power, no association between genetically determined twofold higher adiponectin and risk of colorectal cancer was observed (0.99, 95% CI 0.93, 1.06 in women and 0.94, 95% CI 0.88, 1.01 in men). Thus, our study does not support a causal effect of circulating adiponectin on colorectal cancer risk. Due to the limited genetic determination of adiponectin, larger Mendelian Randomization studies are necessary to clarify whether adiponectin is causally related to lower risk of colorectal cancer.
    • Genetic variation of hepatitis B surface antigen among acute and chronic hepatitis B virus infections in The Netherlands

      Cremer, Jeroen; Hofstraat, Sanne H. I.; van Heiningen, Francoise; Veldhuijzen, Irene K.; van Benthem, Birgit H. B.; Benschop, Kimberley S. M.; Laboratory for Infectious Diseases and Screening, Center for Infectious Disease Control; National Institute for Public Health and the Environment; Bilthoven The Netherlands; Laboratory for Infectious Diseases and Screening, Center for Infectious Disease Control; National Institute for Public Health and the Environment; Bilthoven The Netherlands; Laboratory for Infectious Diseases and Screening, Center for Infectious Disease Control; National Institute for Public Health and the Environment; Bilthoven The Netherlands; Laboratory for Infectious Diseases and Screening, Center for Infectious Disease Control; National Institute for Public Health and the Environment; Bilthoven The Netherlands; Laboratory for Infectious Diseases and Screening, Center for Infectious Disease Control; National Institute for Public Health and the Environment; Bilthoven The Netherlands; Laboratory for Infectious Diseases and Screening, Center for Infectious Disease Control; National Institute for Public Health and the Environment; Bilthoven The Netherlands (2018-10)
    • Genome Detective: An Automated System for Virus Identification from High-throughput sequencing data.

      Vilsker, Michael; Moosa, Yumna; Nooij, Sam; Fonseca, Vagner; Ghysens, Yoika; Dumon, Korneel; Pauwels, Raf; Alcantara, Luiz Carlos; Vanden Eynden, Ewout; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Deforche, Koen; de Oliveira, Tulio (2018-08-16)
      Genome Detective is an easy to use web-based software application that assembles the genomes of viruses quickly and accurately. The application uses a novel alignment method that constructs genomes by reference-based linking of de-novo contigs by combining amino-acids and nucleotide scores. The software was optimized using synthetic datasets to represent the great diversity of virus genomes. The application was then validated with next generation sequencing data of hundreds of viruses. User time is minimal and it is limited to the time required to upload the data.
    • Genome-Wide Association Study of Polymorphisms Predisposing to Bronchiolitis.

      Pasanen, Anu; Karjalainen, Minna K; Bont, Louis; Piippo-Savolainen, Eija; Ruotsalainen, Marja; Goksör, Emma; Kumawat, Kuldeep; Hodemaekers, Hennie; Nuolivirta, Kirsi; Jartti, Tuomas; Wennergren, Göran; Hallman, Mikko; Rämet, Mika; Korppi, Matti (2017-01-31)
      Bronchiolitis is a major cause of hospitalization among infants. Severe bronchiolitis is associated with later asthma, suggesting a common genetic predisposition. Genetic background of bronchiolitis is not well characterized. To identify polymorphisms associated with bronchiolitis, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in which 5,300,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested for association in a Finnish-Swedish population of 217 children hospitalized for bronchiolitis and 778 controls. The most promising SNPs (n = 77) were genotyped in a Dutch replication population of 416 cases and 432 controls. Finally, we used a set of 202 Finnish bronchiolitis cases to further investigate candidate SNPs. We did not detect genome-wide significant associations, but several suggestive association signals (p < 10-5) were observed in the GWAS. In the replication population, three SNPs were nominally associated (p < 0.05). Of them, rs269094 was an expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) for KCND3, previously shown to be associated with occupational asthma. In the additional set of Finnish cases, the association for another SNP (rs9591920) within a noncoding RNA locus was further strengthened. Our results provide a first genome-wide examination of the genetics underlying bronchiolitis. These preliminary findings require further validation in a larger sample size.
    • Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies five new susceptibility loci for pancreatic cancer.

      Klein, Alison P; Wolpin, Brian M; Risch, Harvey A; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z; Mocci, Evelina; Zhang, Mingfeng; Canzian, Federico; Childs, Erica J; Hoskins, Jason W; Jermusyk, Ashley; Zhong, Jun; Sund, Malin; Talar-Wojnarowska, Renata; Tavano, Francesca; Thornquist, Mark D; Tobias, Geoffrey S; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Vashist, Yogesh; Visvanathan, Kala; Vodicka, Pavel; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Chen, Fei; Wang, Zhaoming; Wentzensen, Nicolas; White, Emily; Yu, Herbert; Yu, Kai; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zheng, Wei; Kraft, Peter; Li, Donghui; Chanock, Stephen; Albanes, Demetrius; Obazee, Ofure; Petersen, Gloria M; Amundadottir, Laufey T; Andreotti, Gabriella; Arslan, Alan A; Babic, Ana; Bamlet, William R; Beane-Freeman, Laura; Berndt, Sonja I; Blackford, Amanda; Borges, Michael; Borgida, Ayelet; Bracci, Paige M; Brais, Lauren; Brennan, Paul; Brenner, Hermann; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Buring, Julie; Campa, Daniele; Capurso, Gabriele; Cavestro, Giulia Martina; Chaffee, Kari G; Chung, Charles C; Cleary, Sean; Cotterchio, Michelle; Dijk, Frederike; Duell, Eric J; Foretova, Lenka; Fuchs, Charles; Funel, Niccola; Gallinger, Steven; M Gaziano, J Michael; Gazouli, Maria; Giles, Graham G; Giovannucci, Edward; Goggins, Michael; Goodman, Gary E; Goodman, Phyllis J; Hackert, Thilo; Haiman, Christopher; Hartge, Patricia; Hasan, Manal; Hegyi, Peter; Helzlsouer, Kathy J; Herman, Joseph; Holcatova, Ivana; Holly, Elizabeth A; Hoover, Robert; Hung, Rayjean J; Jacobs, Eric J; Jamroziak, Krzysztof; Janout, Vladimir; Kaaks, Rudolf; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Klein, Eric A; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kooperberg, Charles; Kulke, Matthew H; Kupcinskas, Juozas; Kurtz, Robert J; Laheru, Daniel; Landi, Stefano; Lawlor, Rita T; Lee, I-Min; LeMarchand, Loic; Lu, Lingeng; Malats, Núria; Mambrini, Andrea; Mannisto, Satu; Milne, Roger L; Mohelníková-Duchoňová, Beatrice; Neale, Rachel E; Neoptolemos, John P; Oberg, Ann L; Olson, Sara H; Orlow, Irene; Pasquali, Claudio; Patel, Alpa V; Peters, Ulrike; Pezzilli, Raffaele; Porta, Miquel; Real, Francisco X; Rothman, Nathaniel; Scelo, Ghislaine; Sesso, Howard D; Severi, Gianluca; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Silverman, Debra; Smith, Jill P; Soucek, Pavel (2018-02-08)
      In 2020, 146,063 deaths due to pancreatic cancer are estimated to occur in Europe and the United States combined. To identify common susceptibility alleles, we performed the largest pancreatic cancer GWAS to date, including 9040 patients and 12,496 controls of European ancestry from the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium (PanScan) and the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4). Here, we find significant evidence of a novel association at rs78417682 (7p12/TNS3, P = 4.35 × 10-8). Replication of 10 promising signals in up to 2737 patients and 4752 controls from the PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) consortium yields new genome-wide significant loci: rs13303010 at 1p36.33 (NOC2L, P = 8.36 × 10-14), rs2941471 at 8q21.11 (HNF4G, P = 6.60 × 10-10), rs4795218 at 17q12 (HNF1B, P = 1.32 × 10-8), and rs1517037 at 18q21.32 (GRP, P = 3.28 × 10-8). rs78417682 is not statistically significantly associated with pancreatic cancer in PANDoRA. Expression quantitative trait locus analysis in three independent pancreatic data sets provides molecular support of NOC2L as a pancreatic cancer susceptibility gene.
    • Genomic characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineage 7 and a proposed name: 'Aethiops vetus'.

      Nebenzahl-Guimaraes, Hanna; Yimer, Solomon A; Holm-Hansen, Carol; de Beer, Jessica; Brosch, Roland; van Soolingen, Dick (2016-06)
      Lineage 7 of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex has recently been identified among strains originating from Ethiopia. Using different DNA typing techniques, this study provides additional information on the genetic heterogeneity of five lineage 7 strains collected in the Amhara Region of Ethiopia. It also confirms the phylogenetic positioning of these strains between the ancient lineage 1 and TbD1-deleted, modern lineages 2, 3 and 4 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Four newly identified large sequence polymorphisms characteristic of the Amhara Region lineage 7 strains are described. While lineage 7 strains have been previously identified in the Woldiya area, we show that lineage 7 strains circulate in other parts of the Amhara Region and also among foreign-born individuals from Eritrea and Somalia in The Netherlands. For ease of documenting future identification of these strains in other geographical locations and recognizing the place of origin, we propose to assign lineage 7 strains the lineage name 'Aethiops vetus'.
    • Genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato detected in 16 mammal species and questing ticks from northern Europe.

      Mysterud, Atle; Stigum, Vetle M; Jaarsma, Ryanne I; Sprong, Hein (2019-03-25)
      Lyme borreliosis is the most common vector-borne zoonosis in the northern hemisphere, and the pathogens causing Lyme borreliosis have distinct, incompletely described transmission cycles involving multiple host groups. The mammal community in Fennoscandia differs from continental Europe, and we have limited data on potential competent and incompetent hosts of the different genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) at the northern distribution ranges where Lyme borreliosis is emerging. We used qPCR to determine presence of B. burgdorferi sl in tissue samples (ear) from 16 mammalian species and questing ticks from Norway, and we sequenced the 5S-23 S rDNA intergenic spacer region to determine genospecies from 1449 qPCR-positive isolates obtaining 423 sequences. All infections coming from small rodents and shrews were linked to the genospecies B. afzelii, while B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (ss) was only found in red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris). Red squirrels were also infected with B. afzelii and B. garinii. There was no evidence of B. burgdorferi sl infection in moose (Alces alces), red deer (Cervus elaphus) or roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), confirming the role of cervids as incompetent hosts. In infected questing ticks in the two western counties, B. afzelii (67% and 75%) dominated over B. garinii (27% and 21%) and with only a few recorded B. burgdorferi ss and B. valaisiana. B. burgdorferi ss were more common in adult ticks than in nymphs, consistent with a reservoir in squirrels. Our study identifies potential competent hosts for the different genospecies, which is key to understand transmission cycles at high latitudes of Europe.
    • Genotyping of Giardia in Dutch patients and animals: a phylogenetic analysis of human and animal isolates.

      Giessen, J W B van der; Vries, A de; Roos, M; Wielinga, Peter; Kortbeek, L M; Mank, T G (2006-06-01)
      Giardia duodenalis (syn. Giardia lamblia, Giardia intestinalis) is a protozoan organism that can infect the intestinal tract of many animal species including mammals. Genetic heterogeneity of G. duodenalis is well described but the zoonotic potential is still not clear. In this study, we analysed 100 Giardia DNA samples directly isolated from human stool specimens, to get more insight in the different G. duodenalis assemblages present in the Dutch human population. Results showed that these human isolates could be divided into two main Assemblages A and B within the G. duodenalis group on the basis of PCR assays specific for the Assemblages A and B and the DNA sequences of 18S ribosomal RNA and the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) genes. Genotyping results showed that G. duodenalis isolates originating from Dutch human patients belonged in 35% of the cases to Assemblage A (34/98) and in 65% of the cases to Assemblage B (64/98) whereas two human cases remained negative in all assays tested. In addition, we compared these human samples with animal samples from the Netherlands and human and animal samples from other countries. A phylogenetic analysis was carried out on the DNA sequences obtained from these Giardia and those available in GenBank. Using gdh DNA sequence analysis, human and animal Assemblage A and B Giardia isolates could be identified. However, phylogenetic analysis revealed different sub-clustering for human and animal isolates where host-species-specific assemblages (C, D, E, F and G) could be identified. The geographic origin of the human and animal samples was not a discriminating factor.
    • Het gesprek met de patiënt is essentieel voor goede farmacotherapeutische zorg.

      Lemmens LC; Delwel GO; Hoefman RJ; de Jong JD; Weda M (2018-02)
    • Gezondheid werkt

      Polder J (2017-01-26)
    • Global estimates of mortality associated with long-term exposure to outdoor fine particulate matter.

      Burnett, Richard; Chen, Hong; Szyszkowicz, Mieczysław; Fann, Neal; Hubbell, Bryan; Pope, C Arden; Apte, Joshua S; Brauer, Michael; Cohen, Aaron; Weichenthal, Scott; Coggins, Jay; Di, Qian; Brunekreef, Bert; Frostad, Joseph; Lim, Stephen S; Kan, Haidong; Walker, Katherine D; Thurston, George D; Hayes, Richard B; Lim, Chris C; Turner, Michelle C; Jerrett, Michael; Krewski, Daniel; Gapstur, Susan M; Diver, W Ryan; Ostro, Bart; Goldberg, Debbie; Crouse, Daniel L; Martin, Randall V; Peters, Paul; Pinault, Lauren; Tjepkema, Michael; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Villeneuve, Paul J; Miller, Anthony B; Yin, Peng; Zhou, Maigeng; Wang, Lijun; Janssen, Nicole A H; Marra, Marten; Atkinson, Richard W; Tsang, Hilda; Quoc Thach, Thuan; Cannon, John B; Allen, Ryan T; Hart, Jaime E; Laden, Francine; Cesaroni, Giulia; Forastiere, Francesco; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Jaensch, Andrea; Nagel, Gabriele; Concin, Hans; Spadaro, Joseph V (2018)
      Exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a major global health concern. Quantitative estimates of attributable mortality are based on disease-specific hazard ratio models that incorporate risk information from multiple PM2.5 sources (outdoor and indoor air pollution from use of solid fuels and secondhand and active smoking), requiring assumptions about equivalent exposure and toxicity. We relax these contentious assumptions by constructing a PM2.5-mortality hazard ratio function based only on cohort studies of outdoor air pollution that covers the global exposure range. We modeled the shape of the association between PM2.5 and nonaccidental mortality using data from 41 cohorts from 16 countries-the Global Exposure Mortality Model (GEMM). We then constructed GEMMs for five specific causes of death examined by the global burden of disease (GBD). The GEMM predicts 8.9 million [95% confidence interval (CI): 7.5-10.3] deaths in 2015, a figure 30% larger than that predicted by the sum of deaths among the five specific causes (6.9; 95% CI: 4.9-8.5) and 120% larger than the risk function used in the GBD (4.0; 95% CI: 3.3-4.8). Differences between the GEMM and GBD risk functions are larger for a 20% reduction in concentrations, with the GEMM predicting 220% higher excess deaths. These results suggest that PM2.5 exposure may be related to additional causes of death than the five considered by the GBD and that incorporation of risk information from other, nonoutdoor, particle sources leads to underestimation of disease burden, especially at higher concentrations.
    • Global expansion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineage 4 shaped by colonial migration and local adaptation.

      Brynildsrud, Ola B; Pepperell, Caitlin S; Suffys, Philip; Grandjean, Louis; Monteserin, Johana; Debech, Nadia; Bohlin, Jon; Alfsnes, Kristian; Pettersson, John O-H; Kirkeleite, Ingerid; Fandinho, Fatima; da Silva, Marcia Aparecida; Perdigao, Joao; Portugal, Isabel; Viveiros, Miguel; Clark, Taane; Caws, Maxine; Dunstan, Sarah; Thai, Phan Vuong Khac; Lopez, Beatriz; Ritacco, Viviana; Kitchen, Andrew; Brown, Tyler S; van Soolingen, Dick; O'Neill, Mary B; Holt, Kathryn E; Feil, Edward J; Mathema, Barun; Balloux, Francois; Eldholm, Vegard (2018-10)
      On the basis of population genomic and phylogeographic analyses of 1669 Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineage 4 (L4) genomes, we find that dispersal of L4 has been completely dominated by historical migrations out of Europe. We demonstrate an intimate temporal relationship between European colonial expansion into Africa and the Americas and the spread of L4 tuberculosis (TB). Markedly, in the age of antibiotics, mutations conferring antimicrobial resistance overwhelmingly emerged locally (at the level of nations), with minimal cross-border transmission of resistance. The latter finding was found to reflect the relatively recent emergence of these mutations, as a similar degree of local restriction was observed for susceptible variants emerging on comparable time scales. The restricted international transmission of drug-resistant TB suggests that containment efforts at the level of individual countries could be successful.
    • Global monitoring of antimicrobial resistance based on metagenomics analyses of urban sewage.

      Hendriksen, Rene S; Munk, Patrick; Njage, Patrick; van Bunnik, Bram; McNally, Luke; Lukjancenko, Oksana; Röder, Timo; Nieuwenhuijse, David; Pedersen, Susanne Karlsmose; Kjeldgaard, Jette; Kaas, Rolf S; Clausen, Philip Thomas Lanken Conradsen; Vogt, Josef Korbinian; Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; van de Schans, Milou G M; Zuidema, Tina; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Rasmussen, Simon; Petersen, Bent; Amid, Clara; Cochrane, Guy; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Schmitt, Heike; Alvarez, Jorge Raul Matheu; Aidara-Kane, Awa; Pamp, Sünje J; Lund, Ole; Hald, Tine; Woolhouse, Mark; Koopmans, Marion P; Vigre, Håkan; Petersen, Thomas Nordahl; Aarestrup, Frank M (2019-03-08)
      Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a serious threat to global public health, but obtaining representative data on AMR for healthy human populations is difficult. Here, we use metagenomic analysis of untreated sewage to characterize the bacterial resistome from 79 sites in 60 countries. We find systematic differences in abundance and diversity of AMR genes between Europe/North-America/Oceania and Africa/Asia/South-America. Antimicrobial use data and bacterial taxonomy only explains a minor part of the AMR variation that we observe. We find no evidence for cross-selection between antimicrobial classes, or for effect of air travel between sites. However, AMR gene abundance strongly correlates with socio-economic, health and environmental factors, which we use to predict AMR gene abundances in all countries in the world. Our findings suggest that global AMR gene diversity and abundance vary by region, and that improving sanitation and health could potentially limit the global burden of AMR. We propose metagenomic analysis of sewage as an ethically acceptable and economically feasible approach for continuous global surveillance and prediction of AMR.
    • Global outbreak of severe Mycobacterium chimaera disease after cardiac surgery: a molecular epidemiological study.

      van Ingen, Jakko; Kohl, Thomas A; Kranzer, Katharina; Hasse, Barbara; Keller, Peter M; Katarzyna Szafrańska, Anna; Hillemann, Doris; Chand, Meera; Schreiber, Peter Werner; Sommerstein, Rami; Berger, Christoph; Genoni, Michele; Rüegg, Christian; Troillet, Nicolas; Widmer, Andreas F; Becker, Sören L; Herrmann, Mathias; Eckmanns, Tim; Haller, Sebastian; Höller, Christiane; Debast, Sylvia B; Wolfhagen, Maurice J; Hopman, Joost; Kluytmans, Jan; Langelaar, Merel; Notermans, Daan W; Ten Oever, Jaap; van den Barselaar, Peter; Vonk, Alexander B A; Vos, Margreet C; Ahmed, Nada; Brown, Timothy; Crook, Derrick; Lamagni, Theresa; Phin, Nick; Smith, E Grace; Zambon, Maria; Serr, Annerose; Götting, Tim; Ebner, Winfried; Thürmer, Alexander; Utpatel, Christian; Spröer, Cathrin; Bunk, Boyke; Nübel, Ulrich; Bloemberg, Guido V; Böttger, Erik C; Niemann, Stefan; Wagner, Dirk; Sax, Hugo (2017-10)
      Since 2013, over 100 cases of Mycobacterium chimaera prosthetic valve endocarditis and disseminated disease were notified in Europe and the USA, linked to contaminated heater-cooler units (HCUs) used during cardiac surgery. We did a molecular epidemiological investigation to establish the source of these patients' disease.
    • Global phylogeography and genetic diversity of the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto genotype G1.

      Kinkar, Liina; Laurimäe, Teivi; Acosta-Jamett, Gerardo; Andresiuk, Vanessa; Balkaya, Ibrahim; Casulli, Adriano; Gasser, Robin B; van der Giessen, Joke; González, Luis Miguel; Haag, Karen L; Zait, Houria; Irshadullah, Malik; Jabbar, Abdul; Jenkins, David J; Kia, Eshrat Beigom; Manfredi, Maria Teresa; Mirhendi, Hossein; M'rad, Selim; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Oudni-M'rad, Myriam; Pierangeli, Nora Beatriz; Ponce-Gordo, Francisco; Rehbein, Steffen; Sharbatkhori, Mitra; Simsek, Sami; Soriano, Silvia Viviana; Sprong, Hein; Šnábel, Viliam; Umhang, Gérald; Varcasia, Antonio; Saarma, Urmas (2018-05-19)
      Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) is the major cause of human cystic echinococcosis worldwide and is listed among the most severe parasitic diseases of humans. To date, numerous studies have investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of E. granulosus s.s. in various geographic regions. However, there has been no global study. Recently, using mitochondrial DNA, it was shown that E. granulosus s.s. G1 and G3 are distinct genotypes, but a larger dataset is required to confirm the distinction of these genotypes. The objectives of this study were to: (i) investigate the distinction of genotypes G1 and G3 using a large global dataset; and (ii) analyse the genetic diversity and phylogeography of genotype G1 on a global scale using near-complete mitogenome sequences. For this study, 222 globally distributed E. granulosus s.s. samples were used, of which 212 belonged to genotype G1 and 10 to G3. Using a total sequence length of 11,682 bp, we inferred phylogenetic networks for three datasets: E. granulosus s.s. (n = 222), G1 (n = 212) and human G1 samples (n = 41). In addition, the Bayesian phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses were performed. The latter yielded several strongly supported diffusion routes of genotype G1 originating from Turkey, Tunisia and Argentina. We conclude that: (i) using a considerably larger dataset than employed previously, E. granulosus s.s. G1 and G3 are indeed distinct mitochondrial genotypes; (ii) the genetic diversity of E. granulosus s.s. G1 is high globally, with lower values in South America; and (iii) the complex phylogeographic patterns emerging from the phylogenetic and geographic analyses suggest that the current distribution of genotype G1 has been shaped by intensive animal trade.
    • Global Spread of Norovirus GII.17 Kawasaki 308, 2014-2016.

      Chan, Martin C W; Hu, Yunwen; Chen, Haili; Podkolzin, Alexander T; Zaytseva, Ekaterina V; Komano, Jun; Sakon, Naomi; Poovorawan, Yong; Vongpunsawad, Sompong; Thanusuwannasak, Thanundorn; Hewitt, Joanne; Croucher, Dawn; Collins, Nikail; Vinjé, Jan; Pang, Xiaoli L; Lee, Bonita E; de Graaf, Miranda; van Beek, Janko; Vennema, Harry; Koopmans, Marion P G; Niendorf, Sandra; Poljsak-Prijatelj, Mateja; Steyer, Andrej; White, Peter A; Lun, Jennifer H; Mans, Janet; Hung, Tin-Nok; Kwok, Kirsty; Cheung, Kelton; Lee, Nelson; Chan, Paul K S (2017)
      Analysis of complete capsid sequences of the emerging norovirus GII.17 Kawasaki 308 from 13 countries demonstrated that they originated from a single haplotype since the initial emergence in China in late 2014. Global spread of a sublineage SL2 was identified. A new sublineage SL3 emerged in China in 2016.
    • Global update on the susceptibility of human influenza viruses to neuraminidase inhibitors and status of novel antivirals, 2016-2017.

      Lackenby, Angie; Besselaar, Terry G; Daniels, Rod S; Fry, Alicia; Gregory, Vicki; Gubareva, Larisa V; Huang, Weijuan; Hurt, Aeron C; Leang, Sook-Kwan; Lee, Raphael T C; Lo, Janice; Lollis, Lori; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Odagiri, Takato; Pereyaslov, Dmitriy; Takashita, Emi; Wang, Dayan; Zhang, Wenqing; Meijer, Adam (2018-07-03)
      A total of 13672 viruses, collected by World Health Organization recognised National Influenza Centres between May 2016 and May 2017, were assessed for neuraminidase inhibitor susceptibility by four WHO Collaborating Centres for Reference and Research on Influenza and one WHO Collaborating Centre for the Surveillance Epidemiology and Control of Influenza. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) was determined for oseltamivir and zanamivir for all viruses, and for peramivir and laninamivir in a subset (n = 8457). Of the viruses tested, 94% were obtained from the Western Pacific, Americas and European WHO regions, while limited viruses were available from the Eastern Mediterranean, African and South East Asian regions. Reduced inhibition (RI) by one or more neuraminidase inhibitor was exhibited by 0.2% of viruses tested (n = 32). The frequency of viruses with RI has remained low since this global analysis began (2015/16: 0.8%, 2014/15: 0.5%; 2013/14: 1.9%; 2012/13: 0.6%) but 2016/17 has the lowest frequency observed to date. Analysis of 13581 neuraminidase sequences retrieved from public databases, of which 5243 sequences were from viruses not included in the phenotypic analyses, identified 58 further viruses (29 without phenotypic analyses) with amino acid substitutions associated with RI by at least one neuraminidase inhibitor. Bringing the total proportion to 0.5% (90/18915). This 2016/17 analysis demonstrates that neuraminidase inhibitors remain suitable for treatment and prophylaxis of influenza virus infections, but continued monitoring is important. An expansion of surveillance testing is paramount since several novel influenza antivirals are in late stage clinical trials with some resistance already having been identified.