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Series/Report no.RIVM briefrapport 2015-0056
MetadataShow full item record
TitleBiosecurity Signalering 2014 : Bureau Biosecurity
PubliekssamenvattingIn 2013 heeft de Nederlandse overheid Bureau Biosecurity opgericht als kennis- en informatiepunt voor zowel de overheid als voor organisaties die werken met risicovolle ziekteverwekkers. Biosecurity gaat over de beveiliging van deze ziekteverwekkers. Het werken in laboratoria met risicovolle ziekteverwekkers brengt risico's met zich mee, en het is daarom van belang dat in een laboratorium veilig met deze ziekteverwekkers wordt gewerkt - ter bescherming van mens en milieu (biosafety), maar ook beveiligd (biosecurity) - zodat het materiaal en laboratorium afgeschermd is voor kwaadwillenden. Bureau Biosecurity ontwikkelt kennisproducten, informeert over biosecurity en vergroot de bewustwording rondom biosecurity vraagstukken. Het bureau bundelt jaarlijks relevante nieuwsberichten en signalen over het onderwerp biosecurity.
In de 'Biosecurity Signalering 2014' rapporteert Bureau Biosecurity over nationale en internationale biosecurity initiatieven, berichten vanuit de beleidshoek en wetenschappelijke publicaties die met biosecurity te maken hebben. Tevens zijn berichten uit de media opgenomen, zoals berichtgeving in kranten en internetartikelen gerelateerd aan biosecurity, die een afspiegeling vormen van de nieuwsgeving en perceptie in de samenleving. Het doel van de rapportage is om betrokken overheidspartijen over biosecurity-ontwikkelingen te informeren die van invloed kunnen zijn op risico's en dreigingen in Nederland. Hiertoe behoren ook rapportages over fouten die in laboratoria voorkomen en de kwetsbaarheden die hiermee aan het licht komen. Deze informatie kan van belang zijn voor hetbeleidsvormingstraject en het in kaart brengen van nieuwe risico's rondom risicovolle ziekteverwekkers. Bij de selectie van de berichten is gelet op de onderwerpen: biosecurity, dual-use onderzoek, gain-offunction onderzoek en biosafety- en biosecurity-incidenten met risicovolle ziekteverwekkers.
In 2013, the Dutch government established the Netherlands Biosecurity Office as the national information centre for both the Dutch government and for organizations that work with high-risk pathogens. Laboratory work involving pathogens carries certain risks and therefore, personnel must work safely to protect the environment and human health ('biosafety'), but must also work in a secure manner to ensure that persons with malicious intent cannot gain access to the laboratory or the relevant biological materials or knowledge ('biosecurity'). The Biosecurity Office develops knowledge products, provides information, and increases awareness around biosecurity issues. Every year, the office compiles an overview of relevant news items and reports relating to biosecurity.
In its Annual Biosecurity Overview 2014, the office reports on international biosecurity initiatives, policy developments, and scientific publications related to biosecurity. The Annual Biosecurity Overview also includes newspaper reports, internet articles and other media items relating to biosecurity that reflect news coverage and public perceptions of this topic. The purpose of the overview is to inform governmental stakeholders about biosecurity developments that may affect the risk and threat profile of the Netherlands. This includes reporting on errors occurring in laboratories and the vulnerabilities they reveal. This information can be useful to policy-makers, and can help in identifying new risks associated with pathogens. The news reports and articles were selected based on the following topics: biosecurity, dual use research, gain-of-function research, and biosafety and biosecurity incidents involving high-risk pathogens.
SponsorsMinisterie van VWS
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The Vulnerability Scan, a Web Tool to Increase Institutional Biosecurity Resilience.Meulenbelt, Stephanie E; van Passel, Mark W J; de Bruin, Arnout; van den Berg, Linda M; Schaap, Mirjam M; Rutjes, Saskia A; Jacobi, André J; Agterberg, Marja C; de Hoog, Carin; van Willigen, Gijsbert; et al. (2019-01-01)The importance of vigilance within organizations working with high-risk biological material receives increasing attention. However, an in-depth and comprehensive tool, dedicated to increase awareness of potential risks and to assess an organization's current biosecurity vulnerabilities, has not been available yet. We developed the "Biosecurity Vulnerability Scan," a web tool that identifies biosecurity gaps in an organization based on eight biosecurity pillars of good practice. Although the tool aims primarily to assist biosafety and biosecurity officers, it can also be useful to researchers working with dangerous pathogens, their principal investigators, management, or those responsible for security issues in the life sciences. Results are only stored locally and are provided in an "overview report," which includes information on relevant risks and control measures. This can support well-substantiated decision-making on strengthening biosecurity measures within a specific organization. With this article, we aim to support institutes to increase their overall security resilience and to improve institutional biosecurity in particular by providing practical recommendations. The Biosecurity Vulnerability Scan is available at www.biosecurityvulnerabilityscan.nl.
The antimicrobial resistome in relation to antimicrobial use and biosecurity in pig farming, a metagenome-wide association study in nine European countries.Van Gompel, Liese; Luiken, Roosmarijn E C; Sarrazin, Steven; Munk, Patrick; Knudsen, Berith E; Hansen, Rasmus B; Bossers, Alex; Aarestrup, Frank M; Dewulf, Jeroen; Wagenaar, Jaap A; et al. (2019-04-01)Previous studies in food-producing animals have shown associations between antimicrobial use (AMU) and resistance (AMR) in specifically isolated bacterial species. Multi-country data are scarce and only describe between-country differences. Here we investigate associations between the pig faecal mobile resistome and characteristics at the farm-level across Europe. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 176 conventional pig farms from nine European countries. Twenty-five faecal samples from fattening pigs were pooled per farm and acquired resistomes were determined using shotgun metagenomics and the Resfinder reference database, i.e. the full collection of horizontally acquired AMR genes (ARGs). Normalized fragments resistance genes per kilobase reference per million bacterial fragments (FPKM) were calculated. Specific farm-level data (AMU, biosecurity) were collected. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed by country, relating farm-level data to relative ARG abundances (FPKM). Total AMU during fattening was positively associated with total ARG (total FPKM). Positive associations were particularly observed between widely used macrolides and tetracyclines, and ARGs corresponding to the respective antimicrobial classes. Significant AMU-ARG associations were not found for β-lactams and only few colistin ARGs were found, despite high use of these antimicrobial classes in younger pigs. Increased internal biosecurity was directly related to higher abundances of ARGs mainly encoding macrolide resistance. These effects of biosecurity were independent of AMU in mutually adjusted models. Using resistome data in association studies is unprecedented and adds accuracy and new insights to previously observed AMU-AMR associations. Major components of the pig resistome are positively and independently associated with on-farm AMU and biosecurity conditions.
Accelerating Action in Global Health Security: Global Biosecurity Dialogue as a Model for Advancing the Global Health Security Agenda.Brizee, Sabrina; Budeski, Katherine; James, Wilmot; Nalabandian, Michelle; Bleijs, Diederik A; Becker, Scott J; Wallace-Sankarsingh, Sacha; Ahumibe, Anthony; Agogo, Emmanuel; Ihekweazu, Chikwe; et al.