Uitvoering van maatregelen bij winningen drinkwater : Implementation of measures at drinking water extraction sites
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Series/Report no.RIVM briefrapport 2015-0130
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TitleUitvoering van maatregelen bij winningen drinkwater : Implementation of measures at drinking water extraction sites
Translated TitleStand van zaken mei 2015 : state of affairs in May 2015
PubliekssamenvattingSinds enkele jaren worden in Nederland programma's opgesteld met afspraken over maatregelen die nodig zijn om de risico's voor de kwaliteit van bronnen van drinkwater weg te nemen of te voorkomen. Of met deze maatregelen Nederland ook zal kunnen voldoen aan de concrete kwaliteitsdoelstellingen van de Europese Kaderrichtlijn Water (KRW) voor bronnen van drinkwater, is nog niet duidelijk. Uit een inventarisatie van het RIVM blijkt dat hierover zorg bestaat bij de betrokken partijen (provincies, drinkwaterbedrijven en waterbeheerders). Wel is de bewustwording van de kwetsbaarheid van de waterwinningen bij deze partijen vergroot, evenals de betrokkenheid om mee te werken aan oplossingen.
De programma's zijn onder regie van provincies en waterbeheerders opgesteld. Een van de problemen die bij de bescherming van de kwaliteit van de drinkwaterbronnen speelt is dat verschillende kaders, zoals de Drinkwaterwet en de Wet bodembescherming, van toepassing zijn. Dit geldt bijvoorbeeld voor historische bodemverontreinigingen en het gebruik van mest. Hierdoor kan het voorkomen dat betrokken partijen voldoen aan hun wettelijke verplichtingen voor de bodem maar er toch een probleem blijft bestaan voor de kwaliteit van het water dat bestemd is voor de drinkwatervoorziening.
Daarnaast zijn lozingen van vervuilende stoffen op oppervlaktewater lastig aan te pakken. Dat komt doordat veel partijen, zowel binnen Nederland als daarbuiten, betrokken zijn en ieders verantwoordelijkheid hierin niet helemaal duidelijk is. De Drinkwaterwet biedt hiervoor wel allerlei handvaten, maar die moeten wel nader worden uitgewerkt en in de praktijk gebracht.
In the past few years, programmes have been drawn up in the Netherlands that include agreements on necessary measures for the remediation or prevention of risks affecting drinking water resources. It is still unclear whether these measures will be sufficient to ensure compliance with the specific water quality targets of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) for drinking water resources. An inventory drawn up by the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) indicates that this is a matter of concern for the parties involved (provinces, drinking water companies and water authorities). However, the parties involved have become more aware of the vulnerability of abstraction sites and are more willing to help remediate risks.
The programmes were formulated under the direction of provinces and water authorities. Protecting the quality of drinking water resources is made more difficult by discrepancies between the different legal frameworks that apply, such as the Dutch Drinking Water Act and the Dutch Soil Protection Act. This is for instance the case for historical soil contamination and the use of manure. As a consequence, the parties involved may fulfil their legal obligations while water quality problems at an abstraction site remain unresolved.
In addition, discharges of polluting substances into surface water are difficult to tackle due to the large number of parties involved, both in the Netherlands and in other riparian states. In addition, the division of responsibilities is somewhat unclear. Although the Dutch Drinking Water Act does provide guidelines on this matter, these must be further elaborated and implemented.
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Nanodeeltjes in waterStruijs J; van de Meent D; Peijnenburg WJGM; Heugens E; de Jong W; Hagens W; de Heer C; Hofman J; Roex E; LER (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMKiwa Water ResearchRijkswaterstaat Waterdienst, 2007-11-06)In the coming years we will become more aware of nanotechnology. Nanoparticles offer new possibilities because they are small. Nanotechnology is already used for example in car paint, car tyres, shoe spray and sun cream. Therefore the market for nanotechnology is growing at a terrific pace. Researchers and users are agreed: the importance of this new technology will be great. However with new technology comes uncertainty. No one can yet estimate what the exact advantages and disadvantages are. The increased use and growing (social) attention for the risks from nanotechnology provoked the need for an elaborate literature study into the possible uses and risks. This study is aimed specifically at the aquatic environment and drinking water. The report 'Nanoparticles in water' is a combined project by Rijkswaterstaat, Kiwa Water Research, Vewin and the RIVM, the latter being designated by the Government as 'observation point nanotechnology'. The study provides, from the available information, a summary of opportunities and threats from nanotechnology in relation to water. It covers the effects known up until now from nanoparticles on the aquatic environment and on humans. In addition it identifies areas where further research is necessary in order to gain a better understanding of risks. Finally the report covers the national and European legislation related to nanoparticles. There appear to be many loose ends as a result of which risks cannot be correctly estimated. In short: a summary report that provides insight into the scientific state of knowledge concerning nanotechnology in relation to water. Thereby it creates a start for further research and can be used as an aid for policy and legislation.
Gebiedsdossiers voor drinkwaterbronnen, uitwerking van risico's en ontwikkeling van maatregelenWuijts S; van Rijswick HFMW; Dik HHJ; IMD (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMUniversiteit UtrechtDepartement RechtsgeleerdheidDisciplinegroep Staats- en BestuursrechtCentrum voor Omgevingsrecht en -beleid/NILOS, 2008-02-19)Within the framework of protecting the abstraction of drinking water, the so-called 'dossiers for the area' appear to be a useful instrument for compiling information relevant to water quality at the abstraction site. This information can subsequently be used to develop effective protection measures. As such, the dossiers for the area supplement the existing protection policy. By order of the Ministry of Public Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM), RIVM has formulated a protocol for compiling 'dossiers for the area'. The protocol has been extensively worked out for three types of abstraction sites (groundwater, river bank filtration and surface water). The National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) of the Netherlands recommends legally anchoring the necessity for such dossiers in the planned National Drinking Water Act and also, if necessary, in the Environmental Act. The RIVM also recommends that the management of the decision-making process be given to one administrative body only. Different authorities are involved in the realization of these measures. It is therefore important that the administrative decision-making process governing 'dossiers for the area' be bundled under the jurisdiction of one authority. Given that provinces are the responsible administrative unit in the areas of water, spatial planning and the environment, this role would appear to be best carried out at the provincial level. This is the outcome of a workshop that took place in November 2007 at the RIVM. Participants of the workshop were representatives of national, provincial and local authorities, national and regional water boards and water companies. The results of the project 'dossiers for the area' were discussed during the workshop. 'Dossiers for the area' can also be of use to other abstractions of water for human consumption, such as in the formulation of policy aimed at protecting industrial abstractions used to produce beer and soda. By implementing such measures, the Netherlands meets its obligations as stated in the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) with respect to abstractions for human consumption.
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