Fish embryo toxicity test, threshold approach, and moribund as approaches to implement 3R principles to the acute fish toxicity test.
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TitleFish embryo toxicity test, threshold approach, and moribund as approaches to implement 3R principles to the acute fish toxicity test.
Published inChemosphere 2017, 186:677-85
PubliekssamenvattingThe acute fish toxicity test (AFT) is requested by EU legal frameworks for hazard classification and risk assessment. AFT is one of the few regulatory required tests using death as an endpoint. This paper reviews efforts made to reduce, refine and replace (3Rs) AFT. We make an inventory of information requirements for AFT, summarize studies on 3Rs of AFT and give recommendations. The fish embryo toxicity test (FET) is proposed as a replacement of AFT and analyses have focused on two aspects: assessing the capacity of FET in predicting AFT and defining the applicability domain of FET. Six comparison studies have consistently shown a strong correlation of FET and AFT. In contrast, the applicability domain of FET has not yet been fully defined. FET has not yet been accepted as a replacement of AFT by any EU legal frameworks to fulfill information requirements because FET is insensitive to some chemicals. It is recommended that the outlier chemicals that do not correlate between FET and AFT should be further investigated. When necessary, additional FET data should be generated. Another effort to reduce and refine AFT is incorporation of FET into the threshold approach. Furthermore, moribund as an endpoint of fish death has been introduced in revising AFT guideline to reduce the duration of suffering for refinement. This endpoint, however, needs further work on the link of moribund and death. Global regulatory acceptance of the moribund endpoint would be critical for this development.
- Applicability of the fish embryo acute toxicity (FET) test (OECD 236) in the regulatory context of Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation, and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH).
- Authors: Sobanska M, Scholz S, Nyman AM, Cesnaitis R, Gutierrez Alonso S, Klüver N, Kühne R, Tyle H, de Knecht J, Dang Z, Lundbergh I, Carlon C, De Coen W
- Issue date: 2018 Mar
- Use of fish embryo toxicity tests for the prediction of acute fish toxicity to chemicals.
- Authors: Belanger SE, Rawlings JM, Carr GJ
- Issue date: 2013 Aug
- The fish embryo test (FET): origin, applications, and future.
- Authors: Braunbeck T, Kais B, Lammer E, Otte J, Schneider K, Stengel D, Strecker R
- Issue date: 2015 Nov
- Is the fish embryo toxicity test (FET) with the zebrafish (Danio rerio) a potential alternative for the fish acute toxicity test?
- Authors: Lammer E, Carr GJ, Wendler K, Rawlings JM, Belanger SE, Braunbeck T
- Issue date: 2009 Mar
- Fish embryo tests and acute fish toxicity tests are interchangeable in the application of the threshold approach.
- Authors: Rawlings JM, Belanger SE, Connors KA, Carr GJ
- Issue date: 2019 Mar