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dc.contributor.authorDang, ZhiChao
dc.contributor.authorvan der Ven, Leo T M
dc.contributor.authorKienhuis, Anne S
dc.date.accessioned2018-01-09T13:00:18Z
dc.date.available2018-01-09T13:00:18Z
dc.date.issued2017-11
dc.identifier.citationFish embryo toxicity test, threshold approach, and moribund as approaches to implement 3R principles to the acute fish toxicity test. 2017, 186:677-685 Chemosphereen
dc.identifier.issn1879-1298
dc.identifier.pmid28818595
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.08.047
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10029/621076
dc.description.abstractThe acute fish toxicity test (AFT) is requested by EU legal frameworks for hazard classification and risk assessment. AFT is one of the few regulatory required tests using death as an endpoint. This paper reviews efforts made to reduce, refine and replace (3Rs) AFT. We make an inventory of information requirements for AFT, summarize studies on 3Rs of AFT and give recommendations. The fish embryo toxicity test (FET) is proposed as a replacement of AFT and analyses have focused on two aspects: assessing the capacity of FET in predicting AFT and defining the applicability domain of FET. Six comparison studies have consistently shown a strong correlation of FET and AFT. In contrast, the applicability domain of FET has not yet been fully defined. FET has not yet been accepted as a replacement of AFT by any EU legal frameworks to fulfill information requirements because FET is insensitive to some chemicals. It is recommended that the outlier chemicals that do not correlate between FET and AFT should be further investigated. When necessary, additional FET data should be generated. Another effort to reduce and refine AFT is incorporation of FET into the threshold approach. Furthermore, moribund as an endpoint of fish death has been introduced in revising AFT guideline to reduce the duration of suffering for refinement. This endpoint, however, needs further work on the link of moribund and death. Global regulatory acceptance of the moribund endpoint would be critical for this development.
dc.language.isoenen
dc.rightsinfo:eu-repo/semantics/closedAccessen
dc.subject.meshAnimals
dc.subject.meshEmbryo, Nonmammalian
dc.subject.meshToxicity Tests
dc.subject.meshToxicity Tests, Acute
dc.subject.meshZebrafish
dc.titleFish embryo toxicity test, threshold approach, and moribund as approaches to implement 3R principles to the acute fish toxicity test.en
dc.typeArticleen
dc.identifier.journalChemosphere 2017, 186:677-85en
html.description.abstractThe acute fish toxicity test (AFT) is requested by EU legal frameworks for hazard classification and risk assessment. AFT is one of the few regulatory required tests using death as an endpoint. This paper reviews efforts made to reduce, refine and replace (3Rs) AFT. We make an inventory of information requirements for AFT, summarize studies on 3Rs of AFT and give recommendations. The fish embryo toxicity test (FET) is proposed as a replacement of AFT and analyses have focused on two aspects: assessing the capacity of FET in predicting AFT and defining the applicability domain of FET. Six comparison studies have consistently shown a strong correlation of FET and AFT. In contrast, the applicability domain of FET has not yet been fully defined. FET has not yet been accepted as a replacement of AFT by any EU legal frameworks to fulfill information requirements because FET is insensitive to some chemicals. It is recommended that the outlier chemicals that do not correlate between FET and AFT should be further investigated. When necessary, additional FET data should be generated. Another effort to reduce and refine AFT is incorporation of FET into the threshold approach. Furthermore, moribund as an endpoint of fish death has been introduced in revising AFT guideline to reduce the duration of suffering for refinement. This endpoint, however, needs further work on the link of moribund and death. Global regulatory acceptance of the moribund endpoint would be critical for this development.


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