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dc.contributor.authorParkkali, S
dc.contributor.authorJoosten, R
dc.contributor.authorFanoy, E
dc.contributor.authorPijnacker, R
dc.contributor.authorVAN Beek, J
dc.contributor.authorBrandwagt, D
dc.contributor.authorVAN Pelt, W
dc.date.accessioned2018-01-29T12:53:01Z
dc.date.available2018-01-29T12:53:01Z
dc.date.issued2017-07
dc.identifier.citationOutbreak of diarrhoea among participants of a triathlon and a duathlon on 12 July 2015 in Utrecht, the Netherlands. 2017, 145 (10):2176-2184 Epidemiol. Infect.en
dc.identifier.issn1469-4409
dc.identifier.pmid28511732
dc.identifier.doi10.1017/S0950268817001017
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10029/621258
dc.description.abstractOn 12 July 2015, a triathlon competition with 900 participants took place in Utrecht, the Netherlands. An outbreak investigation was initiated after 56 participants reported health complaints. An online questionnaire was sent to 700 participants. Stool specimens from six participants and four water specimens were collected from the swimming location. A total of 239 participants completed the questionnaire (response rate: 34%), 73 (31%) of them met the case definition for acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI). A total of 67% of the respondents were male and the median age was 38 years. Almost half (42%) of swimmers reported health complaints. Consumption of energy drinks and ingesting ⩾3 mouthfuls of canal water were identified as risk factors for AGI among swimmers only (adjusted relative risks (aRR) 1·6; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1·0-2·5 and aRR 2·6; 95% CI 1·5-4·8). The collected water specimens tested positive for norovirus genogroup I and rotavirus and stool specimens tested positive for norovirus genogroup II. Our findings indicate that the outbreak could have been caused by exposure to norovirus during swimming. Swimmers should get information about the health risks for making an informed choice about participating. For future events, the organisers decided to change the swimming location from a canal to a recreational lake.
dc.language.isoenen
dc.rightsinfo:eu-repo/semantics/closedAccessen
dc.subject.meshAdolescent
dc.subject.meshAdult
dc.subject.meshAged
dc.subject.meshCaliciviridae Infections
dc.subject.meshDiarrhea
dc.subject.meshDisease Outbreaks
dc.subject.meshFemale
dc.subject.meshGastroenteritis
dc.subject.meshHumans
dc.subject.meshMale
dc.subject.meshMiddle Aged
dc.subject.meshNetherlands
dc.subject.meshNorovirus
dc.subject.meshSports
dc.subject.meshSwimming
dc.subject.meshWater Microbiology
dc.subject.meshYoung Adult
dc.titleOutbreak of diarrhoea among participants of a triathlon and a duathlon on 12 July 2015 in Utrecht, the Netherlands.en
dc.typeArticleen
dc.identifier.journalEpidemiol Infect 2017; 145(10):2176-84en
html.description.abstractOn 12 July 2015, a triathlon competition with 900 participants took place in Utrecht, the Netherlands. An outbreak investigation was initiated after 56 participants reported health complaints. An online questionnaire was sent to 700 participants. Stool specimens from six participants and four water specimens were collected from the swimming location. A total of 239 participants completed the questionnaire (response rate: 34%), 73 (31%) of them met the case definition for acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI). A total of 67% of the respondents were male and the median age was 38 years. Almost half (42%) of swimmers reported health complaints. Consumption of energy drinks and ingesting ⩾3 mouthfuls of canal water were identified as risk factors for AGI among swimmers only (adjusted relative risks (aRR) 1·6; 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1·0-2·5 and aRR 2·6; 95% CI 1·5-4·8). The collected water specimens tested positive for norovirus genogroup I and rotavirus and stool specimens tested positive for norovirus genogroup II. Our findings indicate that the outbreak could have been caused by exposure to norovirus during swimming. Swimmers should get information about the health risks for making an informed choice about participating. For future events, the organisers decided to change the swimming location from a canal to a recreational lake.


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