Risk factors for gastroenteritis associated with canal swimming in two cities in the Netherlands during the summer of 2015: A prospective study.
Cast your vote
You can rate an item by clicking the amount of stars they wish to award to this item.
When enough users have cast their vote on this item, the average rating will also be shown.
Your vote was cast
Thank you for your feedback
Thank you for your feedback
van Pelt, Wilfrid
MetadataShow full item record
TitleRisk factors for gastroenteritis associated with canal swimming in two cities in the Netherlands during the summer of 2015: A prospective study.
Published inPlos One 2017; 12(4):e0174732
PubliekssamenvattingUrban canal swimming events are popular in the Netherlands. In 2015, two city canal swimming events took place, in Utrecht (Utrecht Singel Swim, USS) and in Amsterdam (Amsterdam City Swim, ACS). This prospective study characterizes the health risks associated with swimming in urban waters. Online questionnaires were sent to 160 (USS) and 2,692 (ACS) participants, with relatives of participants who did not swim completing the questionnaire as a control. Swimming water specimens and stool specimens of diarrheic participants in the ACS group were analysed. A total of 49% of USS and 51% of ACS swimmers returned their questionnaires. Nine percent of USS swimmers and 4% of non-swimmers reported gastrointestinal complaints (aRR 2.1; 95% CI: 0.3-16), while a total of 31% of ACS swimmers and 5% of non-swimmers reported gastrointestinal complaints (aRR 6.3; 95% CI: 4.1-9.5). AGI risk among ACS participants was directly related to increasing number of mouthfuls of water swallowed. Various norovirus genotypes were detected in five out of seven stool specimens taken from ACS participants and in all three tested ACS water samples. We conclude that the AGI risk among open-water swimmers in urban areas depends on the circumstances around the event. The epidemiological curve, the statistical association between swimming and AGI, and the microbiological evidence for norovirus in stool and water specimens suggest that AGI outbreak after the ACS event was due to water contamination by multiple norovirus strains, which is possibly linked to sewage overflow due to prior heavy rainfall. There is need for more targeted preventive measurements and recommendations for organizers, municipal authorities and participants to prevent this reoccurring in the future.
- Infection risks of city canal swimming events in the Netherlands in 2016.
- Authors: Hintaran AD, Kliffen SJ, Lodder W, Pijnacker R, Brandwagt D, van der Bij AK, Siedenburg E, Sonder GJB, Fanoy EB, Joosten RE
- Issue date: 2018
- Outbreak of diarrhoea among participants of a triathlon and a duathlon on 12 July 2015 in Utrecht, the Netherlands.
- Authors: Parkkali S, Joosten R, Fanoy E, Pijnacker R, VAN Beek J, Brandwagt D, VAN Pelt W
- Issue date: 2017 Jul
- Waterborne outbreak of gastroenteritis on the KwaZulu-Natal Coast, South Africa, December 2016/January 2017.
- Authors: Sekwadi PG, Ravhuhali KG, Mosam A, Essel V, Ntshoe GM, Shonhiwa AM, McCarthy K, Mans J, Taylor MB, Page NA, Govender N
- Issue date: 2018 Jul
- Risk of gastroenteritis among triathletes in relation to faecal pollution of fresh waters.
- Authors: van Asperen IA, Medema G, Borgdorff MW, Sprenger MJ, Havelaar AH
- Issue date: 1998 Apr
- Norovirus Outbreak Associated with Swimming in a Recreational Lake Not Influenced by External Human Fecal Sources in The Netherlands, August 2012.
- Authors: Schets FM, van den Berg HHJL, Vennema H, Pelgrim MTM, Collé C, Rutjes SA, Lodder WJ
- Issue date: 2018 Nov 14