Aggregate consumer exposure to isothiazolinones via household care and personal care products: Probabilistic modelling and benzisothiazolinone risk assessment.
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von Goetz, Natalie
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TitleAggregate consumer exposure to isothiazolinones via household care and personal care products: Probabilistic modelling and benzisothiazolinone risk assessment.
Published inEnviron Int 2018; 118:245-56
PubliekssamenvattingConsumers regularly use household care and personal care products (HC&PCPs). Isothiazolinones are included in HC&PCPs as preservatives and are being held responsible for an epidemic rise in allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). The objective of this study was to assess the origin and extent of dermal exposure in order to evaluate the risk of ACD from isothiazolinones in HC&PCP. Individual-based aggregate dermal exposure to four isothiazolinones was estimated using the newly proposed Probabilistic Aggregated Consumer Exposure Model-Kinetic, Dermal (PACEM-KD) by combining the reported individual use patterns for HC&PCP in Switzerland (N = 669 (558 adults), ages 0-91) with isothiazolinone concentrations measured in products used by the individual person. PACEM-KD extends the original PACEM by considering exposure duration, product dilution and skin permeability. PACEM-KD-based higher-tier exposure on palms (99th percentile) was 15.4 ng/cm2, 1.3 ng/cm2, 0.9 ng/cm2, and 0.08 ng/cm2 for the isothiazolinones 1,2‑Benzisothiazol‑3‑(2H)‑one (BIT), 2‑Octyl‑3(2H)‑isothiazolinone (OIT), 2‑Methylisothiazolin‑3(2H)‑one (MI), and 5‑Chloro‑2‑methyl‑4‑isothiazolin‑3‑one (CMI), respectively. Major sources of exposure to BIT included all-purpose cleaners, dishwashing detergent, and kitchen cleaner, while exposure to OIT mainly stems from a fungicide. For MI, the main contributors were dishwashing detergent and all-purpose wet wipes, and for CMI all-purpose cleaner. A Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) for BIT using Sensitization Assessment Factors (SAFs) indicates that around 1% of the Swiss population is at risk to be sensitized by BIT in cosmetics and household chemicals. For isothiazolinones in general the presented higher-tier modelling approach suggests that household cleaners are currently more important sources of exposure than cosmetics.
- Occurrence and concentrations of isothiazolinones in detergents and cosmetics in Switzerland.
- Authors: Garcia-Hidalgo E, Sottas V, von Goetz N, Hauri U, Bogdal C, Hungerbühler K
- Issue date: 2017 Feb
- Skin sensitisation quantitative risk assessment (QRA) based on aggregate dermal exposure to methylisothiazolinone in personal care and household cleaning products.
- Authors: Ezendam J, Bokkers BGH, Bil W, Delmaar JE
- Issue date: 2018 Feb
- Use-patterns of personal care and household cleaning products in Switzerland.
- Authors: Garcia-Hidalgo E, von Goetz N, Siegrist M, Hungerbühler K
- Issue date: 2017 Jan
- The probabilistic aggregate consumer exposure model (PACEM): validation and comparison to a lower-tier assessment for the cyclic siloxane D5.
- Authors: Dudzina T, Delmaar CJ, Biesterbos JW, Bakker MI, Bokkers BG, Scheepers PT, van Engelen JG, Hungerbuehler K, von Goetz N
- Issue date: 2015 Jun
- [Isothiazolinones as causal factors of contact allergy epidemics in the 20th and 21st centuries].
- Authors: Chomiczewska-Skóra D, Kręcisz B, Kieć-Świerczyńska M
- Issue date: 2014