Modelling the long-term feed-to-fillet transfer of leuco crystal violet and leuco malachite green in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).
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AuthorsBerntssen, Marc H G
Bokkers, Bas G H
Zeilmaker, Marco J
MetadataShow full item record
TitleModelling the long-term feed-to-fillet transfer of leuco crystal violet and leuco malachite green in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).
Published inFood Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2018; advance online publication (ahead of print)
PubliekssamenvattingLeuco crystal violet (LCV) and leuco malachite green (LMG) are the main metabolites of two dyes that are forbidden for use in food production, but can be present at low background concentration in novel Atlantic salmon feed ingredients such as processed animal proteins (animal by-product [ABP]). In this study, the potential transfer of dietary LCV or LMG to the fillet of farmed Atlantic salmon was investigated. The uptake and elimination rate kinetics were determined in seawater-adapted Atlantic salmon (initial weight 587 ± 148 g) fed two levels of either LCV- or LMG-enriched diets (~500 and 4000 µg kg-1, respectively) for 40 days, followed by a 90-day depuration period with feeding on control diets (<0.15 μg kg-1 LCV and LMG). A three-compartmental model was developed, based on a fillet fat, fillet muscle and a central body compartment comprising all other tissues. Model calibrations showed a good fit with measured values during overall uptake and elimination period; however, the model poorly predicted the short-term (days) peak measured values at the end of the exposure period. The model was used to simulate the long-term (>16 months) LCV and LMG feed-to-fillet transfer in Atlantic salmon under realistic farming conditions such as the seasonal fluctuations in feed intake, growth and fillet fat deposition. The model predictions gave highest expected LCV and LMG fillet concentrations of approximately 0.12 and 0.45 μg kg-1, depending on the dietary levels of ABP and background level of LCV and LMG contamination. These levels are under the reference point for action of 2 µg kg-1 for the sum of MG and LMG that EFSA assessed as adequate to protect public health. However, for LCV, the predicted highest levels exceed the analytical decision limit (CCα) of 0.15 µg kg-1 for the method used in this paper.
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