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TitleRADON AND THORON PROGENY IN DUTCH DWELLINGS.
Published inRadiat Prot Dosimetry 2018; 181(1):11-4
PubliekssamenvattingRadon and thoron progenies in Dutch dwellings cause ~400 cases of lung cancer per year. Some 30% of the risk is due to thoron progeny, which demonstrates that the influence of thoron progeny is much larger than previously anticipated. This was concluded from a national survey in 2500 Dutch dwellings, built since 1930. Radon concentrations (15.6 ± 0.3 Bq m-3 on average) are correlated to type of dwelling, year of construction, ventilation system, location (soil type) and smoking behaviour of inhabitants. The survey data support the establishment of a comparatively low national reference level for radon in dwellings in the Netherlands of 100 Bq m-3, in line with recommendations by WHO and ICRP. Some 24 thousand of the 6.2 million dwellings in the Netherlands (built since 1930) are expected to exceed this level. Around 80% of these are located in the relatively small group of naturally ventilated single-family houses in two designated geographical areas. Radon concentrations above 200 Bq m-3 are rare in the Netherlands and simple and inexpensive measures will be sufficient to reduce enhanced radon concentrations to values below the national reference level. Thoron progeny concentrations (0.64 Bq m-3, on average) show correlations with year of construction and smoking behaviour. In 75 additional dwellings, a pilot study was conducted to determine the relationship between the exhalation of thoron from walls and the concentration of thoron progeny in the room. Thoron exhalation values exceeding the median value of 2.2 × 10-2 Bq m-2 s-1 by a factor 10 or more were found frequently, but enhanced concentrations of thoron progeny were measured only occasionally. Under very unfavourable conditions, however, for instance if phosphogypsum is applied as finishing material on all walls and ceilings in the house, strongly elevated thoron progeny concentrations may occur. This survey yielded a maximum recording of 13.3 Bq m-3. There is no reason to expect that such levels are specific to the Netherlands, indicating that in other regions with low radon levels, thoron may be a more important contributor to the population dose as well.
- Ingredients for a Dutch radon action plan, based on a national survey in more than 2500 dwellings.
- Authors: Smetsers RCGMR, Blaauboer ROR, Dekkers SAJF
- Issue date: 2016 Dec
- Thoron exposure in Dutch dwellings - An overview.
- Authors: de With G, Smetsers RCGM, Slaper H, de Jong P
- Issue date: 2018 Mar
- MEASUREMENT OF RADON, THORON AND THEIR PROGENY IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF DWELLING IN ALMORA DISTRICT OF KUMAUN HIMALAYAN REGION.
- Authors: Singh K, Semwal P, Pant P, Gusain GS, Joshi M, Sapra BK, Ramola RC
- Issue date: 2016 Oct
- Measurements of thoron and radon progeny concentrations in Beijing, China.
- Authors: Zhang L, Liu C, Guo Q
- Issue date: 2008 Dec
- ANNUAL EFFECTIVE DOSE ASSESSMENT DUE TO RADON AND THORON PROGENIES IN DWELLINGS OF KILIMAMBOGO, KENYA.
- Authors: Nyambura C, Tokonami S, Hashim NO, Chege MW, Suzuki T, Kudo H, Hosoda M
- Issue date: 2019 Oct 1