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dc.contributor.authorSchijven, Jack
dc.contributor.authorTeunis, Peter
dc.contributor.authorSuylen, Trudy
dc.contributor.authorKetelaars, Henk
dc.contributor.authorHornstra, Luc
dc.contributor.authorRutjes, Saskia
dc.date.accessioned2019-10-23T09:40:13Z
dc.date.available2019-10-23T09:40:13Z
dc.date.issued2019-07-01
dc.identifier.issn1879-2448
dc.identifier.pmid31015141
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.watres.2019.03.090
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10029/623415
dc.description.abstractAccording to the Dutch Drinking Water Act of 2011, Dutch drinking water suppliers must conduct a Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) for infection by the following index pathogens: enterovirus, Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium and Giardia at least once every four years in order to assess the microbial safety of drinking water. The health-based target for safe drinking water is set at less than one infection per 10 000 persons per year. At Evides Water Company, concern has arisen whether their drinking water treatment, mainly based on UV inactivation and chlorine dioxide, reduces levels of adenovirus (AdV) sufficiently. The main objective was, therefore, to conduct a QMRA for AdV. Estimates of the AdV concentrations in source water were based on enumeration of total AdV by integrated cell culture PCR (iccPCR), most probable number PCR (mpnPCR) and quantitative PCR (qPCR), and on enumeration of AdV40/41 by mpnPCR and qPCR. AdV40/41 represents a large fraction of total AdV and only a small fraction of AdV is infectious (1/1700). By comparison of literature data and plant scale data, somatic coliphages appeared a good, conservative indicator for AdV disinfection by UV irradiation. Similarly, bacteriophage MS2 appeared to be a good, conservative indicator for disinfection by chlorine dioxide. Literature data on the efficiency of chlorine dioxide disinfection were fitted with the extended HOM model. Chlorine dioxide disinfection at low initial concentrations (0.05-0.1 mg/l) was found to be the major treatment step, providing sufficient treatment on its own for compliance with the health-based target. UV disinfection of AdV at 40 mJ/cm2 or 73 mJ/cm2 was insufficient without chlorine dioxide disinfection.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.rightsinfo:eu-repo/semantics/closedAccess
dc.subjectAdenovirusen_US
dc.subjectChlorine dioxide disinfectionen_US
dc.subjectDrinking wateren_US
dc.subjectPCRen_US
dc.subjectQMRAen_US
dc.titleQMRA of adenovirus in drinking water at a drinking water treatment plant using UV and chlorine dioxide disinfection.en_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.journalWater Res 2019; 158:34-45en_US
dc.source.journaltitleWater research


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