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dc.contributor.authorJi, Jie
dc.contributor.authorHe, Erkai
dc.contributor.authorQiu, Hao
dc.contributor.authorPeijnenburg, Willie J G M
dc.contributor.authorVan Gestel, Cornelis A M
dc.contributor.authorCao, Xinde
dc.date.accessioned2020-08-19T12:13:19Z
dc.date.available2020-08-19T12:13:19Z
dc.date.issued2020-02-18
dc.identifier.issn1520-5851
dc.identifier.pmid31976662
dc.identifier.doi10.1021/acs.est.9b06837
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10029/624152
dc.description.abstractHardly any study has focused on the quantitative modeling of the toxicity of anionic metal(loid)s and their mixtures in the presence of potentially competing anions. Here, we designed a univariate experiment (420 treatments) to investigate the influence of various anions (phosphate, sulfate, carbonate, and OH-) on the toxicity of single anionic metal(loid)s (arsenate, selenite, and vanadate) and a full factorial mixture experiment (196 treatments) to examine the interactions and toxicity of As-Se mixtures at 4 phosphate levels. Standard root elongation tests with wheat (Triticum aestivum) were performed. A modeling framework, resembling the biotic ligand model (BLM) for cationic metals, was developed, extended, and applied to explain anion competitions and mixture effects. Carbonate significantly alleviated the toxicity of all three metal(loid)s. The toxicity of As was significantly mitigated by phosphate, while V toxicity was significantly relieved by OH-. The BLM-like model successfully explained more than 93% of the observed variance in toxicity. With the parameters derived from single-metal(loid) exposures, the developed BLM-toxic unit model reached an overall prediction performance of 78% in modeling the toxicity of As-Se mixtures at varying phosphate levels, validating the effectiveness of the model framework. It is concluded that by taking possible anion competitions and interactions into account, the BLM-type approaches can serve as promising tools for the risk assessment of single and mixed metal(loid)s contamination.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.rightsinfo:eu-repo/semantics/closedAccess
dc.titleEffective Modeling Framework for Quantifying the Potential Impacts of Coexisting Anions on the Toxicity of Arsenate, Selenite, and Vanadate.en_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.identifier.journalEnviron Sci Technol 2020; 54(4):2379-88en_US
dc.source.journaltitleEnvironmental science & technology


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