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dc.contributor.authorWallinga, J
dc.date.accessioned2024-01-25T15:07:12Z
dc.date.available2024-01-25T15:07:12Z
dc.date.issued2024-01-25
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10029/627222
dc.description.abstractWe provide evidence for the effectiveness of COVID-19 measures in the Netherlands. We estimate the effectiveness of the bundles of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) against transmission. We show that the effectiveness against transmission would have resulted in a very different outcome on the pandemic if the interventions would have been delayed by one or three days, and we compare the effects of the bundles of interventions as quantified for the Netherlands with the bundles of interventions as quantified for other countries (Belgium, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, UK). We show that the effectiveness increases with increasing stringency of the control measures. This association is complemented by an association with a decreasing number of contacts as reported in contact surveys, and a reduction in transmission of other infectious diseases that have the same transmission route as SARS-CoV-2. In a literature review we identify what is known about the contribution of individual interventions and the vaccine effectiveness. We report on approaches to disentangle the contribution of individual interventions to the overall effectiveness in reducing transmission, using information from multiple countries, we point to current best estimates and identify the limitations to using these estimates for future infection control. We recommend looking into complementarity of interventions, and setting up data streams that inform infection control in a future pandemic.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherRijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMen_US
dc.titleEpidemiological impact and effectiveness of COVID-19 measuresen_US
dc.typePreprinten
refterms.dateFOA2024-01-25T15:07:13Z


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