In vitro and in vivo (cyto)toxicity assays using PVC and LDPE as model materials.
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TitleIn vitro and in vivo (cyto)toxicity assays using PVC and LDPE as model materials.
PubliekssamenvattingThe choice for a biomaterial is partly based on the outcome of (cyto)toxicity assays. The rationales behind the selection of certain parameters, such as cell lines, controls, and animals, were evaluated using a positive and a negative control, and one experimental sample designed to induce intermediate toxicity. Extraction and direct contact assays were performed using human epidermal keratinocytes and mouse fibroblasts and mouse epithelial cells. Cell survival was measured with the tetrazolium salt (MTT) reduction assay. In addition, local implantation studies were performed in mice and rats. The positive control induced a high degree of toxicity in all in vitro tests performed, indicating that the toxicity observed in the direct contact assay was due to in situ extraction of toxic components. In the direct contact assay the negative control tested on the mouse fibroblasts resulted in a significant reduction of cell survival. No decrease in cell survival was found using the experimental sample. Subcutaneous implantation studies in mice showed that the positive control material induced a severe degeneration in mice. However, in rats just minimal alterations were noted. The experimental material induced moderate responses only in mice. Our results indicate that the direct contact assay provides limited additional information on the cytotoxicity of materials if certain limitations are not taken into account. For the in vivo implantation assay mice were superior to rats in detecting local toxic responses.
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