Random effect modelling of patient-related risk factors in orthopaedic procedures: results from the Dutch nosocomial infection surveillance network 'PREZIES'.
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TitleRandom effect modelling of patient-related risk factors in orthopaedic procedures: results from the Dutch nosocomial infection surveillance network 'PREZIES'.
PubliekssamenvattingIn the Dutch surveillance for surgical site infections (SSIs), data from 70277 orthopaedic procedures with 1895 SSIs were collected between 1996 and 2003. The aims of this study were: (1) to analyse the trends in SSIs associated with Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria; (2) to estimate patient-related risk factors for deep and superficial SSIs after all orthopaedic procedures, with special attention to primary total hip arthroplasty (THA); and (3) to analyse inherent differences in infection risk between hospitals. A random effect model was used to estimate the odds ratios of patient-related risk factors for developing an SSI, and to describe the distribution of the most widespread bacterial species responsible for SSIs among hospitals. Gram-positive organisms, mainly staphylococci, were the main cause of both deep (84.0%) and superficial SSIs (69.1%) after orthopaedic procedures. The percentage of SSIs after THA caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci decreased over the surveillance period, while the contribution of Staphylococcus aureus increased. Temporary elevations in the incidence of the most widespread pathogen species were observed within hospitals. Patient-related factors such as the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System risk index or age had little effect on the predictive power of the random effect models. This study underlines the usefulness of a random effect model, which adjusts risk estimates for random variation between hospitals, in a multicentre study on risk factors for SSIs.
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