Now showing items 21-40 of 12744

    • Ecotoxicologische risicogrenzen voor PFOS in bodem en grondwater

      Verbruggen, EMJ; Marinkovic, M; Wassenaar, PNH (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2021-01-18)
      Het RIVM heeft risicogrenzen bepaald voor PFOS in bodem en grondwater. De risicogrenzen houden rekening met twee routes: directe effecten van PFOS op planten en dieren in de bodem, en effecten op vogels en zoogdieren die PFOS via hun voedsel binnenkrijgen. Het bevoegd gezag gebruikt de risicogrenzen om te beslissen of hergebruik van grond veilig is voor het milieu. PFOS en andere poly- en perfluoralkylstoffen (PFAS) zijn door de mens gemaakte stoffen die heel langzaam afbreken, ophopen in het lichaam en giftig zijn. Het gebruik van PFOS is wereldwijd zeer sterk aan banden gelegd. Maar doordat de stof bijna niet afbreekt, zitten er nog steeds resten in het milieu. PFOS hoopt zich op in planten en dieren. Daarom is het relevant om te kijken naar de risico's voor vogels en zoogdieren die PFOS binnenkrijgen via het eten van bodemdieren, zoals regenwormen. Dit heet doorvergiftiging. Per route zijn twee risiconiveaus bepaald: het Ernstig Risiconiveau (ER) en het Maximaal Toelaatbaar Risiconiveau (MTR). Het MTR is de concentratie waarbij geen nadelige effecten zijn te verwachten. Het MTR voor doorvergiftiging is 3 microgram per kilogram droge grond. Het ER (106 microgram per kilogram) is de concentratie waarbij PFOS ernstige effecten kan hebben op vogels en zoogdieren. Het RIVM heeft in 2011 ook ecotoxicologische risicogrenzen afgeleid voor PFOS in bodem en grondwater, toen op basis van beperkt beschikbare informatie. De risicogrenzen zijn nu beter onderbouwd. Het nieuwe MTR voor doorvergiftiging is hetzelfde als in 2011, het ER voor doorvergiftiging is nu voor het eerst bepaald. Dit onderzoek is onderdeel van een serie rapportages over risicogrenzen van PFAS. Hiermee draagt het RIVM bij aan een landelijk kader waarmee bevoegde gezagen kunnen bepalen hoe zij omgaan met PFAS-houdende grond en baggerspecie. Dit onderzoek is uitgevoerd in opdracht van het ministerie van Infrastructuur en Waterstaat (IenW).
    • The occurrence of non-anatomical therapeutic chemical-international nonproprietary name molecules in suspected illegal or illegally traded health products in Europe: A retrospective and prospective study.

      Deconinck, Eric; Vanhee, Celine; Keizers, Peter; Guinot, Pauline; Mihailova, Albena; Syversen, Per Vidar; Li-Ship, Graziella; Young, Steven; Blazewicz, Agata; Poplawska, Magdalena; et al. (2021-01-16)
    • Applications and Recruitment Performance of Web-Based Respondent-Driven Sampling: Scoping Review.

      Helms, Yannick B; Hamdiui, Nora; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E E; Rocha, Luis E C; van Steenbergen, Jim E; Bengtsson, Linus; Thorson, Anna; Timen, Aura; Stein, Mart L (2021-01-15)
    • Exploring determinants of hand hygiene compliance in LTCFs: a qualitative study using Flottorps' integrated checklist of determinants of practice.

      Lescure, Dominique; Haenen, Anja; de Greeff, Sabine; Voss, Andreas; Huis, Anita; Hulscher, Marlies (2021-01-14)
    • Immunogenicity, duration of protection, effectiveness and safety of rubella containing vaccines: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis.

      Van den Boogaard, Jossy; de Gier, Brechje; de Oliveira Bressane Lima, Priscila; Desai, Shalini; de Melker, Hester E; Hahné, Susan J M; Veldhuijzen, Irene K (2021-01-14)
    • Determinants associated with viable genital or rectal bacterial load (FemCure).

      Janssen, Kevin J H; Wolffs, Petra F G; Hoebe, Christian J P A; Heijman, Titia; Götz, Hannelore M; Bruisten, Sylvia M; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten; de Vries, Henry J; Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H T M (2021-01-13)
      Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is routinely diagnosed by nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs), which are unable to distinguish between nucleic acids from viable and non-viable CT organisms.
    • Safety and sustainability analysis of railway sleeper alternatives : Application of a novel method for material loops

      Quik, JTK; Dekker, E; Montforts, MHMM (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2021-01-12)
      This is a revised version of letter report 2020-0126 Every year, ProRail replaces 200,000 railway sleepers. In the last century, wooden sleepers were used treated with creosotes to preserve them. Creosotes contain substances of very high concern. More recently, sleepers have been made from concrete, but greater quantities of CO2 are released in the manufacture of these sleepers than from wooden sleepers. To minimize CO2 emissions and the use of substances of concern, ProRail is looking for alternative railway sleepers. To this end, RIVM has compared six different types of sleepers with cement concrete (100 percent Portland cement). The six sleeper types are made from copper-treated wood, untreated wood, recycled steel-reinforced plastic (PE), virgin steel-reinforced plastic (PE), glass-fiber-reinforced plastic (virgin PU) and Sulphur-based concrete (instead of cement-based concrete). The comparison of the various sleepers was based on the aspects that are important for sustainability and safety of substances for the environment. The sleepers made from recycled plastic and Sulphur-concrete are more sustainable than sleepers from concrete (Portland cement). The other types of sleepers are only favorable over concrete in certain aspects of sustainability. Based on the data available, the various types appear to be equally safe for the environment. Part of the sustainability assessment of the sleepers is done by looking at the extent to which they release greenhouse gases and how much land is needed to extract the materials to make them. The land used to produce wooden sleepers is greater than for the other sleeper types. This is important due to the effect on biodiversity, even though less greenhouse gases are released during production compared to concrete. The safety of the sleepers was analyzed by looking at the presence of pollutants and the degree to which these pollutants leach out. After all, any substance released during the use of the sleepers can end up in the soil and groundwater. There is legislation for all types of sleepers, the objective of which is to ensure that they are safe to use. For this study not all relevant data were available. Knowledge of the presence of any hazardous substances in sleepers is important if they are to be safely reused.
    • Biowaiver Monographs for Immediate Release Solid Oral Dosage Forms: Metformin Hydrochloride.

      Metry, Melissa; Shu, Yan; Abrahamsson, Bertil; Cristofoletti, Rodrigo; Dressman, Jennifer B; Groot, D W; Parr, Alan; Langguth, Peter; Shah, Vinod P; Tajiri, Tomokazu; et al. (2021-01-12)
    • Modeling multi-level survival data in multi-center epidemiological cohort studies: Applications from the ELAPSE project.

      Samoli, Evangelia; Rodopoulou, Sophia; Hvidtfeldt, Ulla A; Wolf, Kathrin; Stafoggia, Massimo; Brunekreef, Bert; Strak, Maciej; Chen, Jie; Andersen, Zorana J; Atkinson, Richard; et al. (2021-01-12)
      We evaluated methods for the analysis of multi-level survival data using a pooled dataset of 14 cohorts participating in the ELAPSE project investigating associations between residential exposure to low levels of air pollution (PM2.5 and NO2) and health (natural-cause mortality and cerebrovascular, coronary and lung cancer incidence).
    • Predictors of Frailty and Vitality in Older Adults Aged 75 years and Over: Results from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam.

      de Breij, Sascha; van Hout, Hein P J; De Bruin, Simone R; Schuster, Noah A; Deeg, Dorly J H; Huisman, Martijn; Hoogendijk, Emiel O (2021-01-11)
    • Cost-effectiveness of two screening strategies for and as part of the PrEP programme in the Netherlands: a modelling study.

      van Wifferen, Francine; Hoornenborg, Elske; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F; Heijne, Janneke; van Hoek, Albert Jan (2021-01-11)
      Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) users are routinely tested four times a year (3 monthly) for asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infections on three anatomical locations. Given the high costs of this testing to the PrEP programme, we assessed the impact of 3 monthly screening(current practice), compared with 6 monthly on the disease burden. We quantified the difference in impact of these two testing frequencies on the prevalence of CT and NG among all men who have sex with men (MSM) who are at risk of an STI, and explored the cost-effectiveness of 3-monthly screening compared with a baseline scenario of 6-monthly screening.
    • Decision-making, barriers, and facilitators regarding cervical cancer screening participation among Turkish and Moroccan women in the Netherlands: a focus group study.

      Hamdiui, Nora; Marchena, Eline; Stein, Mart L; van Steenbergen, Jim E; Crutzen, Rik; van Keulen, Hilde M; Reis, Ria; van den Muijsenbergh, Maria E T C; Timen, Aura (2021-01-07)
      Six focus group discussions were conducted between March and April 2019 with Turkish (n = 24) and Moroccan (n = 20) women in the Netherlands, aged 30-60 years. Questions were based on an extended version of the Health Belief Model. Discussions were transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed.
    • Can Previous Associations of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the , , , and Genes in the Susceptibility to and Severity of Infections Be Confirmed?

      Jukema, Jelmer B; Hoenderboom, Bernice M; van Benthem, Birgit H B; van der Sande, Marianne A B; de Vries, Henry J C; Hoebe, Christian J P A; Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H T M; Bax, Caroline J; Morré, Servaas A; Ouburg, Sander (2021-01-07)
      Clear inter-individual differences exist in the response to C. trachomatis (CT) infections and reproductive tract complications in women. Host genetic variation like single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been associated with differences in response to CT infection, and SNPs might be used as a genetic component in a tubal-pathology predicting algorithm. Our aim was to confirm the role of four genes by investigating proven associated SNPs in the susceptibility and severity of a CT infection. A total of 1201 women from five cohorts were genotyped and analyzed for TLR2 + 2477 G > A, NOD1 + 32656 T -> GG, CXCR5 + 10950 T > C, and IL10 - 1082 A > G. Results confirmed that NOD1 + 32656 T ->GG was associated with an increased risk of a symptomatic CT infection (OR: 1.9, 95%CI: 1.1-3.4, p = 0.02), but we did not observe an association with late complications. IL10 - 1082 A > G appeared to increase the risk of late complications (i.e., ectopic pregnancy/tubal factor infertility) following a CT infection (OR = 2.8, 95%CI: 1.1-7.1, p = 0.02). Other associations were not found. Confirmatory studies are important, and large cohorts are warranted to further investigate SNPs' role in the susceptibility and severity of a CT infection.
    • BMI trajectories after primary school-based lifestyle intervention: Unravelling an uncertain future. A mixed methods study.

      Oosterhoff, Marije; Jolani, Shahab; De Bruijn-Geraets, Daisy; van Giessen, Anoukh; Bosma, Hans; van Schayck, Onno C P; Joore, Manuela A (2021-01-07)
      This mixed methods study aimed to examine plausible body mass index (BMI) trajectories after exposure to a primary school-based lifestyle intervention to aid in estimating the long-term intervention benefits. BMI trajectories for children at control schools (mean 7.6 years of age) were modelled until 20 years of age through extrapolating trial evidence (N = 1647). A reference scenario assumed that the observed 2-year effects of the 'Healthy Primary Schools of the Future' (HPSF) and 'Physical Activity Schools' (PAS) were fully maintained over time. This was modelled by applying the observed 2-year BMI effects until 20 years of age. Expert opinions on likely trends in effect maintenance after the 2-year intervention period were elicited qualitatively and quantitatively, and were used for developing alternative scenarios. Expert elicitation revealed three scenarios: (a) a constant exposure-effect and an uncontrolled environment with effect decay scenario, (b) a household multiplier and an uncontrolled environment with effect decay scenario, and (c) a household multiplier and maintainer scenario. The relative effect of HPSF at 20 years of age was -0.21 kg/m2 under the reference scenario, and varied from -0.04 kg/m2(a) to -0.06 kg/m2(b), and -0.50 kg/m2(c). For PAS, the relative effect was -0.17 kg/m2 under the reference scenario, and varied from -0.04 kg/m2(a, b), to -0.21 kg/m2(c). The mixed methods approach proved to be useful in modelling plausible BMI trajectories and specifying uncertainty on effect maintenance. Further observations until adulthood could reduce the uncertainty around future benefits. This trial was retrospectively registered at Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02800616).
    • Short term impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on incidence of vaccine preventable diseases and participation in routine infant vaccinations in the Netherlands in the period March-September 2020.

      Middeldorp, Marit; van Lier, Alies; van der Maas, Nicoline; Veldhuijzen, Irene; Freudenburg, Wieke; van Sorge, Nina M; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Knol, Mirjam J; de Melker, Hester E (2021-01-06)
    • A widening gap between boys and girls in musculoskeletal complaints, while growing up from age 11 to age 20 - The PIAMA Birth Cohort Study.

      Picavet, H Susan J; Gehring, Ulrike; van Haselen, Amanda; Koppelman, Gerard H; van de Putte, Elise M; Vader, Sarah; van der Wouden, J Hans C; Schmits, Ruben J H; Smit, Henriette A; Wijga, Alet (2021-01-06)
    • Correction to: Adherence to a food group-based dietary guideline and incidence of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes.

      Braver, Nicolette R den; Rutters, Femke; van der Spek, Andrea L J Kortlever; Ibi, Dorina; Looman, Moniek; Geelen, Anouk; Elders, Petra; van der Heijden, Amber A; Brug, Johannes; Lakerveld, Jeroen; et al. (2021-01-05)
    • Possible host-adaptation of SARS-CoV-2 due to improved ACE2 receptor binding in mink.

      Welkers, Matthijs R A; Han, Alvin X; Reusken, Chantal B E M; Eggink, Dirk (2021-01-04)
    • Excess Deaths during Influenza and Coronavirus Disease and Infection-Fatality Rate for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2, the Netherlands.

      van Asten, Liselotte; Harmsen, Carel N; Stoeldraijer, Lenny; Klinkenberg, Don; Teirlinck, Anne C; de Lange, Marit M A; Meijer, Adam; van de Kassteele, Jan; van Gageldonk-Lafeber, Arianne B; van den Hof, Susan; et al. (2021-01-04)